AP Psychology Unit 6 - Learning
Advanced Placement Psychology
Terms in this set (35)
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
unconditioned response (UR)
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
unconditioned stimulus (US)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response.
conditioned response (CR)
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
conditioned stimulus (CS)
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
law of effect
The principle that behaviors are selected by their consequences
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. Any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response.
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer.
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
fixed- interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows. may be positive (adding a detention) or negative (removing a cell phone)
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment.
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake.
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment.
learning by observing others (also called social learning).
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy.
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