Friedland Chapter 7

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Demography
the study of human populations and population trends
demographers
a scientist in the field of demography
emigration
the movement of people out of a country or region, to settle in another country or region
crude birth rate (CBR)
the number of births per year per 1,000 individuals per year
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
the number of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year
total fertility rate (TFR)
an estimate of the average number of children that each woman in a population will bear throughout her childbearing years
replacement-level fertility
the total fertility rate required to offset the average number of deaths in a population in order to maintain the current population size
developed countries
a country with relatively high levels of industrialization and income
developing countries
a country with relatively low levels of industrialization and income
life expectancy
the average number of years that an infant born in a particular year in a particular country can be expected to live, given the current average life span and death rate in that country
infant mortality
the number of deaths of children under 1 year of age per 1,000 live births
child mortaility
the number of deaths of children under age 5 per 1,000 live births
age structure diagram
a diagram that shows the number of individuals within each age category, typically expressed for males and females separately
population pyramid
an age structure diagram that is widest at the bottom and smallest at the top, typical of developing countries
population momentum
continued population growth that does not slow in response to growth reduction measures
theory of demographic transition
as a country moves from a subsistence economy to industrialization and increased affluence, it undergoes a predictable shift in population growth
family planning
regulation of the number or spacing of offspring through the use of birth control
affluence
the state of having plentiful wealth; the possession of money, goods, or property
IPAT equation
Impact = population x affluence x technology
urban area (census definition)
an area that contains more than 385 people per square kilometer (1,000 people per square mile)
gross domestic product (GDP)
a measure of the value of all products and services produced in a country in a year