Disease Detectives 2017 Science Olympiad
Terms in this set (28)
An aggregation of cases over a particular period closely grouped in time and space, regardless of whether the number is more than the expected number
- More cases of a particular disease than expected in a given area or among a specialized group of people over a particular period of time.
Large numbers of people over a wide geographical area are affected
An epidemic occurring over several countries or continents and affecting a large proportion of the population
The systematic and ongoing collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data. The purpose of public health surveillance is to gain knowledge of the patterns of disease, injury, and other health problems in a community so that we can work towards their prevention and control.
A serious, potentially life-threatening infectious disease that is usually transmitted to humans by the bites of rodent fleas. It was one of the scourges of our early history. There are three major forms of the disease: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic.
An animal that transmits disease. For example a mosquito is a vector for malaria.
A physical object that serves to transmit an infectious agent from person to person. An example of this is lice on a comb. The comb is the fomite and the lice is the agent that can make your hair itch.
The probability that an individual will be affected by, or die from, an illness or injury within a stated time or age span. Risk of illness is generally considered to be the same as the Incidence (see below) and the terms are used interchangeably. Age-span is not usually a consideration in this usage. Risk of death from a particular illness is expressed as the Case Fatality Rate (Number deaths due to a disease/Number with the disease) or the Cause-specific Mortality Rate (Number deaths due to a disease/Number in population). Age span is a more common consideration in this last usage.
An infectious disease that is transmissible from animals to humans
Time in between when a person somes into contact with a pathogen and when they first show symptoms or signs of disease.
Present at a continuous level throughout a population/geographic area; constant presence of an agent/health condition within a given geographic area/population; refers to the usual prevalence of an agent/condition.
Occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease, and becomes immune as a result of the primary immune response
Short-term immunization by the injection of antibodies, such as gamma globulin, that are not produced by the recipient's cells.
Protecting a whole community from disease by immunizing a critical mass of its populace.
Early intervention to avoid initial exposure to agent of disease preventing the process from starting
During the latent stage (when the disease has just begun), process of screening and instituting treatment may prevent progression to symptomatic disease
During the symptomatic stage (when the patient shows symptoms), intervention may arrest, slow, or reverse the progression of disease
Set of health activities to mitigate or avoid consequences of unnecessary/excessive intervention of the health system
capacity to cause infection in a susceptible host
capacity to cause disease in a host
severity of disease that the agent causes to host
A microbial organism with the ability to cause disease.
A place where agents can thrive and reproduce.
Portal of Exit
place of exit providing a way for an agent to leave the reservoir; the route a pathogen takes out of an infected host. These tend to be fairly well defined.
Mode of Transmission
Method of transfer by which the organism moves or is carried from one place to another; the transfer of disease-causing microorganisms from one environment to another, particularly from an external environment to a susceptible individual. There are three general categories of transmission: contact, vehicle, and vector.
Portal of Entry
An opening allowing the microorganism to enter the host; the route a pathogen takes to enter a host. Just as with the __________, many pathogens have preferred portals of entry.
A person who cannot resist a microorganism invading the body, multiplying, and resulting in infection.
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