197 terms

Pathognomonic findings and Classic presentations

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Linear yellow-white plaques with odynophagia or pain on swallowing
Candida esophagitis
Reed-Sternberg cells
Hodgkins
Bence Jones protein
MM
Auer rods
AML
smudge cells
CLL
ROULEAUX FORMATION
MM
Severe diarrhea, watery and bloody. Undercooked poultry. Many WBC's and S-shaped gram-neg rods.
Campylobacter. Tx with erythromycin
Small, deep ulcers on endoscopy of esophagus
HSV esophagitis
Large superficial shallow ulcers on endoscopy of esophagus
CMV
Bird/Parrot beak on barium swallow
Achalasia
Corkscrew appearance on barium swallow
Diffuse Esophageal Spasm
Causes regurgitation of undigested food and liquid into the pharynx several hours after eating
Zenker diverticulum
History of alcohol intake and an episode of vomiting with blood
Mallory Weiss tear
Progressive dysphagia to solid foods along with weight loss, reflux and hematemesis
Esophageal cancer
Solid food dysphagia in a patient with a history of GERD
Esophageal stricture
PH Probe is gold standard for diagnosis
GERD
Projectile vomiting occurs shortly after feeding in an infant < 3 mo old
Pyloric stenosis
(+) Murphy's sign (RUQ pain with GB palpation on inspiration), after high fat meal, fat-forty and fertile, diagnose with ultrasound
Acute cholecystitis
fever + jaundice + right upper abdominal pain (Charcot's triad),
Cholangitis
epigastric abdominal pain with radiation to the back
Acute pancreatitis
Painless jaundice
pancreatic cancer
isolated to the colon, lead pipe appearance and continuous inflammation
Ulcerative colitis
mouth to anus, skip lesions and cobblestoning, strictures = string sign
Crohn disease
Sudden onset of acute pain, currant jelly stools, sausage like mass
Intussusception
pain relieved with defecation
IBS
postprandial pain in a patient with a history of PVD
Ischemic bowel disease
Hydrogen breath test
Lactose intolerance
Apple core lesion on barium enema
Colon cancer
Vomiting, severe abdominal distensions and high pitched or lack of bowel sounds. KUB shows dilated loops of bowel with air fluid levels with little or no gas in the colon
SBO
KUB shows dilated colon > 6 cm
Toxic Megacolon
Rectal pain and bleeding which occurs with or shortly after defecation
Anal fissure
Painful; perianal swelling, redness, and tenderness
Perianal abscess
stool leakage and rectal discomfort in an elderly bed-bound patient,
Fecal impaction
bright red blood per rectum, pruritus and rectal discomfort
Internal hemorrhoids
significant pain in rectum, but no bleeding
External hemorrhoids
Rectal bleeding + tenesmus
Anorectal cancer
Traveler's diarrhea
E.coli
Diarrhea after a picnic and egg salad
Staphylococcus Aureus
Diarrhea from shellfish
Vibrio cholerae
Diarrhea from poultry or pork
Salmonella
Diarrhea in a patient post antibiotics
C. Difficile
Diarrhea in poorly canned home foods
C. Perfringens
Diarrhea breakout in day care center
Rotavirus
Diarrhea on a Cruise Ship
Norovirus
Diarrhea after drinking (not so) fresh mountain stream water
Giardia lamblia
Incubates for 1-3 weeks, causes foul smelling bulky stool and may wax and wane over weeks before resolving
Giardia
night blindness
Vit A def.
rickets, osteomalacia
Vit D def
neuropathy, ataxia
Vit E def
bleeding
Vit K def
Reiter syndrome triad
Urethritis
Conjuctivitis
Arthritis
Samters triad
Aspirin intolerance
Asthma
Nasal polyp
Charcot's Triad
RUQ pain
Fever
Jaundice
Beck's Triad
Muffled heart sound
Distended neck veins
Hypotension
Behcet's Syndrome
Recurrent oral ulcers
Genital ulcers
Iridocyclitis
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Triad
Anemia
Thrombocytopenia
Renal failure
Pentad of TTP
Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
Fever
Disturbed neurological function
Renal failure
Thrombocytopenia
Tetrology of Fallot
...
Cushing's triad
Late sign of increase ICP:
Hypertension
Respiratory depression
Bradycardia
Albumino-Cytologic Dissociation
Guillain-Barre (increased protein in CSF with only modest increase in cell count)
Ammonia smell to breath
Uremia
Antiplatelet Antibodies
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Arachnodactyly
Marfans
Ascending weakness / paralysis
Guillain-Barre syndrome
Aseptic necrosis
"the bends"
Sickle cell anemia
Asterixis : flapping hand tremor
Alcoholic cirrhosis
Autosplenectomy
Sickle cell anemia
+Babinski
Upper motor neuron lesion
Bag of worms - scrotal sac
Varicocele
Barrel chest
Emphysema
Bat Wing appearance on CXR
Pulmonary edema
Bence Jones Protein
Free light chains (either kappa or lambda)
Multiple myeloma
Waldenstroms macroglobinemia
Bird's beak on barium swallow
Achalasia
Bitter almonds (scent)
Cyanide poisoning
Black eschars
Anthrax
BRCA1
70% risk of medullary CA of breast
Boutonniere's Deformity
Rheumatoid arthritis
Bouchard's Nodes
Osteoarthritis (PIP)
Boot-Shaped Heart
Tetralogy of Fallot
Blue sclera
Osteogenesis imperfecta
Blue Bloater
Chronic Bronchitis
Black urine
Alkaptonuria
Brittle bone disease
Osteogenesis imperfecta
Bronze diabetes
Hemochromatosis
Buffalo hump
Cushing's syndrome
Bulls eye lesion
Lyme disease
Bull's neck lymphadenopathy : involving cervical lymph nodes
Diptheria
Bunch of grapes
Hydatiform mole
Butterfly rash
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Café au lait spots
Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen's)
Cardiomegaly with Apical Atrophy
Chagas' Disease
Chancre [painless]
1° Syphilis (treponema pallidium)
Haemophilus ducreyi
Chancroid
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech
Multiple sclerosis
Cherry-red lips
Carbon monoxide poisoning
Cherry-red spot in the macula
Tay-Sachs
Niemann-Pick
Cheyne-Stokes Breathing
Cerebral lesion
Chocolate brown blood
Methemoglobinemia
Christmas tree pattern of skin lesions
Pityriasis rosea
Chvostek Sign: facial spasm in
tetany
Hypocalcemia
Civatte bodies
Psoriasis
Claw hand
Scleroderma
Lower trunk injury (C8, T1); cervical rib
Codman's Triangle
Osteosarcoma
Cold Agglutinin
- Mycoplasma pneumoniae
- Infectious mononucleosis
Condyloma Lata
2° Syphilis
Cotton Wool Spots
HTN
Currant-Jelly Sputum : containing clotted blood
Klebsiella
Currant-Jelly Stool
Intussusception
Curschmann Spirals : mucus plugs mixed w epithelium
Bronchial asthma
Depigmentation Of Substantia Nigra
Parkinson's
Deviated trachea
Contralateral pneumothorax
Double bubble on Abdominal film
Duodenal atresia
Eburnation : polished, ivory-like
appearance of bone
Osteoarthritis
Ectopia Lentis
Marfans
Erythema Chronicum Migrans
Lyme Disease
Fatty Liver
Alcoholism
Fish-mouth vertebrae of lumbar spine on xray
Sickle cell
Flask shaped ulcers
Entameba histolytica
Floppy baby
Clostridium botulinum
Fruity odor to breath
Ketosis
Fungus ball in lung
Aspergillus
Garlic (scent)
Arsenic poisoning
Ghon Complex
Tuberculosis (1° & 2°, respectively)
Goiter : enlarged thyroid
Iodine deficiency
Gower's Maneuver
Duchene's MD
Gray baby syndrome
Chloramphenicol
Gumas: granuloma of rubbery
consistency
Tertiary syphilis
Hamman crunch : crunching sounds on chest auscultation
- Air dissected into subcutaneous tissue; rib fx, ruptured esophagus
HCG
- Choriocarcinoma
- Hydatidiform mole
Heberden Nodes
Osteoarthritis (DIP)
Hemorrhagic Urticaria
Henoch-Schonlein Purpura
Hyperpigmentation
Addison's Disease (primary adrenal failure)
Infantile cataracts
- Rubella
- Galactosemia
Heterophil Antibodies
Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
Kussmaul Breathing
Acidosis
Ketoacidosis
IDDM; type I diabetes
Keyser-Fleischer Ring
Wilson's disease
Koilonychia : spoon nails
- Iron deficiency anemia
- Plummer-Vinson syndrome
- Hemochromatosis
Koplik Spots : blue-gray spots on
buccal mucosa
Measles
Lead Pipe sign on X-ray
Ulcerative colitis
Leg ulcers
Sickle cell anemia
Lemon yellow skin color
Pernicious anemia
Linitis plastica
Thickened stomach wall due to diffuse infiltration by cancer cells
Lisch Nodules
Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen's disease)
Malar rash
SLE
McBurneys Sign
Appendicitis (McBurney's Point is 2/3 of the way from the umbilicus to anterior superior iliac spine)
Monoclonal Antibody Spike
-Multiple myeloma this is called the M protein (usually IgG or IgA)
- MGUS
- Waldenstroms macroglobulinemia
Musty [mousy] body odor
PKU
Myxedema
Hypothyroidism
Non-pitting Edema
- Myxedema
- Anthrax Toxin
Palpable olive
Congenital pyloric stenosis
Notching of Ribs on CXR
Coarctation of Aorta
Painless Jaundice
Pancreatic CA (head)
Pannus
Rheumatoid arthritis
Philadelphia Chromosome
- CML
- ALL
Pill rolling tremor
Parkinson's
Pink eye
Adenovirus
Pink Puffer
Emphysema
Porcelain Gallbladder on x-ray : dystrophic calcification
Chronic cholecystitis
Port-Wine Stain
Hemangioma
Posterior Anterior Drawer Sign
Tearing of the ACL
Elevated PSA
Adenocarcinoma of the prostate
Pseudohypertrophy
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Pseudomembranous colitis
C. difficile; also shigellosis, EHEC, ischemic bowel disease
Pseudomembranous pharyngitis
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Punched-Out Bone Lesions
Multiple myeloma
Purple striae
Cushing's syndrome
Putrid breath
Lung abscess
Rash on Palms & Soles
Syphilis, RMSF
Red diaper
Serratia marcescens UTI
Red Morning Urine
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Rice-water stool
Vibrio cholera infection
Rose spots [rash]
Typhoid fever
Russell bodies : bright red globules
of immunoglobulin in cytoplasm of
plasma cells
Multiple myeloma
S3 Heart Sound
- R Shunt⇒- L (VSD, PDA)
- MV/TV Regurg (dilated ventricles stretches valve ring)
- LV Failure LVED
S4 Heart Sound
- LVH/RVH (resistence to filling)
- Pulmonary Stenosis
- Pulmonary HTN
Shield chest : widely spaced nipples
Turner's syndrome
Shuffling gait
Parkinson's
Simian Crease
Down's
Slapped cheek rash
Parvovirus B19 (Erythema infectiosum)
Smith Antigen
SLE (also anti-ds DNA)
Snowstorm appearance on pelvic US
Hydatiform mole
String Sign on X-ray
Crohns bowel wall thickening
Sulfur granules in draining sinuses from jaw
Actinomycosis [A. israelii]
Tendinous Xanthomas
Familial Hypercholesterolemia
Thumb print sign on barium enema
Ischemic bowel
Thumb print sign on neck xray
Swollen epiglottis
Thumb sign : thumb protrudes over
clenched fist
Marfan syndrome
Tophi
Gout
Trousseau's Sign : migratory thrombophlebitis
- Visceral ca, classically pancreatic
- Hypocalcemia (carpal spasm)
Elevated uric Acid
- Gout
- Lesch Nyhan
- Myeloproliferative Disorders
- Diuretics (Loop & Thiazides)
Supraclavicular node enlargement by metastatic carcinoma of the stomach
Virchow's Node
Waiter's tip : arm is extended, adducted, internally rotated
Upper trunk injury (C5, C6)
Webbed neck
Turner's syndrome
Winged scapula
Long thoracic n. damage; trauma to chest wall
White reflex
Retinoblastoma
Wrist drop
Radial n. damage; fall on shoulder, birth injury