78 terms

Protists, Fungi & Plants

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dead
organism that was once alive, but now is not
dormant
a living organism who's processes are slowing down in order to conserve energy; asleep
evidence
Collected data from observations and experiments; proof
habitat
Place where an organism lives
living
an organism that reproduces, grows and develops, obtains resources for energy and responds to stimuli
nonliving
something that was never alive
offspring
Product of reproduction, a new organism produced by one or more parents; baby
autotroph
An organism that makes its own food (plants)
heterotroph
An organism that cannot make its own food (ex. animals, protists, fungi)
stimulus
A change in an organism's surroundings that causes the organism to react
response
An action or change in behavior that occurs as a result of a stimulus.
asexual reproduction
A reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent.
sexual reproduction
a reproductive process which involves 2 parents and produces similar offspring (a mix of the 2 parents)
growth
a process when a living organism becomes larger
development
process that occurs in the life of an organism that results in the organism becoming more complex structurally
energy
required for all organisms to grow and develop
taxonomy
the study of classifying organisms
taxonomists
scientists who groups organisms
levels of classification
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
5 Kingdoms
plants, animals, fungi, protists, moneran (archae/bacteria)
scientific name
Genus species (Latin word written in italics)
Organisms are placed into a kingdom based on...
its ability to make food and the number of cells in its body
species consist of..
organisms that are the same type; able to breed and produce offspring of the same kind
unicellular
single celled organism
multicellular
made of more than one cell
Eukaryotic
containing a nucleus
Prokaryotic
single cell that does not have a membrane bound nucleus; like bacteria
Kingdom Protista
lots of variety among members; most are single celled, live in moist environments & vary in how they move and obtain energy
saprophytic fungi
get energy from decaying organic matter
parasitic fungi
feed on other living organisms (host) and harm the host
symbiotic fungi
feed on other living organisms (host), but do not harm the host
Flagella (flagellum)
a long whip-like tail used to move or catch food; Euglena has one
Cilia
small hair-like projections on the surface of the cell used to sweep food into mouth-like structures. Can also be used to move. Paramecium have this
Pseudopod
false foot. a finger-like projection from the cell used to catch food and/or move. amoeba have this
Hyphae
the "root" system of fungi; long fibrous strands
Mycelium
multiple hyphae
xylem
vascular tissue in plants that transports water up the plant
phloem
vascular tissue in plants that transports sugar down from the leaves to the rest of the plant
nonvascular plants
lack vascular tissue, do not have true roots/stems, distributes water/food from cell to cell, small in size, close to the ground
vascular plants
vascular tissue to transport water/nutrients, true roots, stems & leaves, can grow to be very tall
photosynthesis
process where plants make sugar (glucose) and release oxygen by using sunlight, carbon dioxide and water
chlorophyll
a green pigment in plants that absorbs energy from the sun
stomata
tiny pores on the bottom of leaves that allow gases to enter or exit
respiration
uses sugar (glucose) and oxygen to create carbon dioxide, water and energy for the plant
transpiration
when plants lose excess water through tiny holes in the leaves called stomata
thorns
a structural adaptation for defense of a plant that protects it from being eaten by some animals
poison
a structural adaptation for defense of a plant that is contained in either the fruits or leaves to protect it from being eaten from some animals
stems
support the plant and hold it up closer to the light source
seed coat
protect the seed from injury or drying out
seed dispersal
special structures on the seed allow it to be carried away from the parent by wind, water or animals
fibrous roots
several main roots that each branch off to form a mass of roots that are all about the same size; found in monocots (grass, corn and some trees)
taproot
Single, large root with a few tiny hairs; found in dicots (carrots, dandelions, cacti)
tropism
A growth response of a plant toward or away from a stimulus
phototropism
A growth response to light
gravitropism (geotropism)
a growth response to gravity (pictured is negative gravitropism where shoot grows up against gravity)
hydrotropism
a growth response to water
thigmotropism
a growth response to touch
flowers
part of the plant that contains the reproductive organs need to produce new plants/flowers
petals
colorful or fragrant to attract insects, birds or other pollinators
stamen
male part of the flower
anther
located on the top of the stamen; produces pollen
filament
located in the stamen; stalk that holds the anther up (like a flagpole)
pistil
female part of the flower
ovary
located at the bottom of the pistil;contains ovules where egg cells are produced; eventually turns into the fruit
stigma
sticky top of the pistil where pollen lands
style
located on the pistil; long stalk which the pollen tube grows down after pollination has taken place
seed
contains the fertilized egg (embryo) from which new plants are formed; often protected by a fruit
fruit
formed from the ovary of the plant; protects seeds
tubers/bulbs
asexual reproduction process; underground stems (potatoes, onions)
runners
asexual reproduction process; stems that run above ground on the surface (strawberries, ivy, lawn grasses)
stem cuttings
asexual reproduction process; piece of stem is cut and replanted, roots form and a new plant develops (sugar cane and pineapple)
vacuole
part of the cell that stores water/food. plants have one large vacuole to store water for photosynthesis, animals have many small ones
guard cells
mostly located on the bottom of the leaf; open and close the stomata
cholorplast
part of the cell that contains the cholorphyll
locomotion
moving from place to place
fungi kingdom
almost all multi-cellular, eukaryotic (have a nucleus), heterotrophs, but do not move to get food; absorb nutrients from other organisms
egg
female reproductive cell
sperm
male reproductive cell
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