Piano Signs and Terms

Basic piano signs and terms.
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pianississimo; very, very soft
ppp
pianissimo; very soft
pp
piano; soft
p
mezzo piano; medium soft
mp
mezzo forte; medium loud
mf
forte; loud
f
fortissimo; very loud
ff
fortississimo; very, very loud
fff
gradually louder
crescendo
gradually softer
diminuendo
strong emphasis
accent
legato; smooth connected
sforzando; sudden strong accent
sfz
short, detached
staccato
hold full value
tenuto
rapid
allegro
light and moderately quick
allegretto
slow
andante
moderately slow
andantino
with spirit
con brio
with motion
con moto
slow
lento
moderately
moderato
lively, quick
vivace
bright, lively
vivo
return to original tempo
a tempo
gradually slower
ritardando
in a singing manner
cantabile
gently, sweetly
dolce
expressively
espressivo
humorous
giocoso
playful
scherzando

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