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166 terms

AP Human Geography Midterm Exam

Vocab, etc.
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agricultural density
the ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
agricultural revolution
the time when humans first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
arithmetic density
the total number of people divided by the total land area
census
a complete enumeration of a population
CBR
the total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society
CDR
the total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society
demographic transition
the process of change in a society's population from a condition of high CBR and CDR and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low CBRs and CDRs and a higher total population
demography
the scientific study of population characteristics
dependency ratio
the number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force
doubling time
the number of years needed to double a population assuming a constant rate of natural increase
ecumene
the portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
epidemiology
branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a specific time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality
epidemiologic transition
distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
Industrial Revolution
a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
IMR
the total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1000 live births in a society
life expectancy
the average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions
NIR
the percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the CBR - CDR
overpopulation
the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
pandemic
disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
physiological density
the number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
population pyramid
a bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex
sex ratio
the number of males per 100 females in the population
TFR
the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
ZPG
a decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero
bRITISH received pRONUNCIATION
THE DIALECT OF eNGLISH ASSOCIATED WITH UPPER CLASS bRITONS LIVING IN lONDON AND NOW CONSIDERED STANDARD IN THE uk
Creolized Language
a language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated
denglish
combo of German an English
dialect
a regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and mispronunciation
ebonics
dialects spoken by some African American
extinct language
a language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used
franglais
a term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language; a combo of francais and anglais
ideograms
the system of writing used in China and other E Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or a concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with English letters
isogloss
a boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
isolated language
a language that's unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family
language
a system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning
language branch
a collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago; differences aren't as extensive or as old as with language families
language family
a collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
language group
a collection of languages with in a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
lingua franca
a language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
literary tradition
a language that's often written as well as spoken
official language
the language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents
pidgin language
a form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca; used for communications among speakers of 2 different languages
spanglish
combo of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic Americans
standard language
the form of a language used for official gov't business, edu, and mass communications
Vulgar Latin
a form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents
brain drain
large scale emigration by talented people
chain migration
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
circulation
short term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis
counterurbanization
net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries
emigration
migration from a location
floodplain
the area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends
forced migration
permanent movement compelled usually by cultural forces
guest workers
workers who migrate to the more developed countries of N and W Europe, usually from S and E Europe or from N Africa, in search of higher paying jobs
immigration
migration TO a new location
international migration
permanent movement from one country to another
interregional migration
permanent movement from one region of a country to another
internal migration
permanent movement within a particular country
intervening obstacle
an environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration
intraregional migration
permanent movement within one region of a country
migration
form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location
migration transition
change in the migration pattern of a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition
mobility
all types of movement from one location to another
net migration
the difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration
pull factor
factor that induces people to move to a new location
push factor
factor that induces people to leave old residences
quotas
in reference to migration, laws that place max limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year
refugees
people who are forced to migrate from their home country and can't return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion
unauthorized immigrants
people who enter a country without proper documents
voluntary migration
permanent movement undertaken by choice
custom
the frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act
folk culture
culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups
habit
a repetitive act performed by a particular individual
popular culture
culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics
taboo
a restriction on behavior imposed by social custom
terroir
the contribution of a location's distinctive physical features to the way food tastes
the interplay between globalization and local diversity
the geographic study of rht distribution of languages provides a good example of
literary tradition
the written form of a language
French; Spanish
__ is to Canada as __ is to the US
it has a big role as the common language of a global economy and culture
how has English achieved unprecedented acceptance globally?
they both invaded England
how did both the Angles and Normans contribute to the development of the English language?
Denmark
where did the first speakers of the language that evolved into English live?
the differentiation of one language into two
what does isolation usually result in?
language group
a group of languages that share a common origin but have since evolved into individual languages
language family
a group of languages that share a common ancestor before recorded history
Sino-Tibetan
the second largest language family
Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, French
Romance languages
Celtic languages
threatened by extinction in England; are still spoken by people in France; have been revived in some parts of the British Isles; have an extensive body of literature
Kurgans
Marija Gimbutas' theory points to the first speakers of the Indo-European language as the ancient...
with the diffusion of agriculture
according to Renfrew's Anatolian hearth theory, how did Indo-European languages diffuse across Europe?
Finland, Hungary, and Estonia
every European country is dominated by Indo-European speakers except
Iceland's relative isolation from other places
why has the Icelandic language changed less than any other Germanic language
Mandarin
the language spoken by the greatest number of native speakers in the world
ideograms
Chinese is written in the form of
thousands of years of isolation between tribal groups
resulted in the large number of individual languages documented in Africa
revived language
Hebrew is an example of
Belgium
where do the Flemings and Walloons live?
no
does a pidgin language have any native speakers
lingua franca
a mutually understood language by people who have different native languages
False
All languages have a literary tradition but these traditions are being lost (T/F)
False
The present distribution of languages around the world is due to technological advances and the diffusion of popular culture (T/F)
True
Americans spell words differently than the British primarily because of a strong national feeling in the US for an independent identity (T/F)
False
the most spoken language in China is Cantonese (T/F)
True
A language family is a collection of languages related through a common ancestral language existing before recorded history (T/F)
False
Basque is the only non Indo European language currently spoken in Europe (T/F)
True
Indo European divided into different branches because of isolation of different speakers (T/F)
roman Empire
Where do we get the term "Romance" language branch from?
most other languages Romans came in contact with were extinguished or suppressed
what happened to the Native European languages?
the Roman Empire collapsed and various provinces were isolated from each other
how did other languages evolve from Latin
Romanian
what language is fully derived from Latin
Age of European imperial conquest
led to the wide dispersion of Portuguese and Spanish
Indic
2d largest language group
Devanagari
the script used to write Hindi
Urdu
language that Pakistan uses
Russian
the most widely understood Slavic language
Estonia
Baltic nation that doesn't utilize a Slavic language
China and smaller SE Asian countries
where the Sino-Tibetan Language family is found
the Simitic branch
what China's language is mainly composed of
Cantonese, Wu, Min, Hakka, Mandarin
Chinese language branches
Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam
where is the austro-Thai branch found?
Hangul
how is the korean alphabet utilized?
the Quran
the basis for standard Arabic
Swahili
the lingua franca for most of E Africa
Khoisan
tribal language that utilizes clicking sounds
altitude
the basis for the distinction High and Low Germanic
material artifacts, values, and political institutions
aspects of culture
customs
a repetitive act by an identifiable group of people
false
fold cultures are identified by small, heterogeneous, and isolated groups of people (T/F)
false
fold cultures are dependent upon rapid, simultaneous global connections (T/F)
true
fold cultures may have multiple hearths that are anonymous (T/F)
AFRN
started the diffusion of American popular music to the rest of the world
physical environment, climate, soil type
decides the type of food habits for a folk culture
soybeans
what many Asians eat to add protein into their diet
true
the diffusion of folk cultures is done by the means of relocation diffusion (T/F)
false
S European meal preparation was known for slow-cooking methods (T/F)
false
popular customs are known for their meaning and natural properties rather than appearance (T/F)
false
globalization is known for preserving the unique qualities of Folk cultures, such as female subservience (T/F)
false
the growth of free media outlets are a welcome trend for most isolated gov'ts
globes
most accurately depict the truest geographical distance, direction, size and shape
industrial revolution
spawned vast manufacturing centers
earth writing
the word "geography" literally means
influence of the friction of distance
the slope of the decay function in distance decay models illustrates
cartography
the art and science of map making
death rates increase, then birth rates decrease, and the population levels off
the Demographic Transition Theory
culture hearth
the center and place of origin of a cultural tradition
the sun belt
a US region that has seen the most population growth
population pyramid
shows the age and sex structure of a population
longitude
the angular distance east of west of Greenwich, England
the demographic transition model
explained how countries with high levels of economic production will have lower b irth rates
Malthus
who thought that human numbers will exceed the earth's food potential
latitude
the angular distance north or south of the equator
Asia
by 2020, where will most of the earth's largest cities be located?
dependency ratio
as baby boomers reach old age and are no longer able to work and provide for themselves, the ___ will increase
scale
the ratio between distance on a map and distance on the earth's surface
cultural complex
religious practices, language, and dietary preferences form
physiological density
the number of people within a country against the country's arable
globalization
actions or processes that provide the world with higher levels accessibility
4
what stage of demographic transition is the US in?
1000
the total number of deaths for every __ people in society is known as the CR
time zones
how is the earth divided according to daylight?
projection
a system for transferring locations from a globe to a flat map
situation
relative location to other objects
is less than
a country has net immigration if emigration __ immigration
brain drain
large scale emigration by talented people
5
DTS characterized by diminished birthrates and rising death rates
possiblism
humans will determine how they will adapt themselves, or their environment to their lifestyle choices
20-34
most migrants are between __ years of age