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AP Psychology Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders

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Psychological Disorder
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 640)
Medical Model
the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured
DSM-IV
The American psychiatric association's widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
Neurotic Disorder
a psychological disorder that is usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially
Psychotic Disorder
a psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions.
Anxiety Disorders
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
Phobia
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
Obsessive-compulsive Disorder
An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions.
Panic Disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
Somatoform Disorders
disorders characterized by physical symptoms for which no known physical cause exists
Conversion Disorders
Somatoform disorders in which individuals experience serious somatomic symptoms such as fuctional blindness, deafness, and paralysis
Hypochondriasis
a condition characterized by misinterpretation of physical symptoms and fearing that one has a serious illness despite appropriate medical evaluation and reassurance
Dissociative Disorders
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
a disorder characterized by an acute emotional responce to a traumatic event or severe emotional stress such as an airplane crash, repeated physical or emotional trauma
Amnesia
loss of memory
Fugue
condition of having amnesia for your current life and starting a new life somewhere else
Dissociative Identity Disorder
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities
Mood Disorders
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. See major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 658)
Major Depressive Disorder
a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities
Bipolar Disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
Mania
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
Schizophrenia
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
Delusions
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
Personality Disorders
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
Antisocial Personality
A person who lacks a conscience, is emotionally shallow, impulsive, and selfish, and tends to manipulate others
Bio-psycho-social Perspective
a contemporary perspective which assumes that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce pscyhological disorders
Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 or one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
Post-traumatic Growth
The positive psychological change experienced as a result of the struggle with highly challenging life circumstances