8th Grade Social Studies Midterm Review

Missouri Compromise
A compromise composed of three parts: Missouri would enter the union as a slave state, Maine would enter as a free state, and Congress drew an imaginary line from the base of Missouri to the north end of the Louisiana Purchase. The line represented that everything above would be free, and all below would be slave.
Fugitive Slave Act
Slaves who escape to the north must be returned to the south.
Compromise of 1850
A compromise that was composed of four different parts: Fugitive Slave Act would be passed, there would be no slave trade in D.C., California would enter as a free state, and Utah and New Mexico are popular sovereignty.
Henry Clay
Person who proposed the Missouri Compromise
Jefferson Davis
President of the CSA
CSA strengths
Good generals, vast size, soldiers fighting for a defensive war to protect homeland
Union strengths
Large population, 85% of nation's factories, 70% of nation's railroad mileage
Battle of Bull Run
First official battle of the Civil War
Anaconda Plan
The unions goals in the war : Naval blockade of coastline, take control of Mississippi River, capture Richmond.
Battle of Antietam
This battle was a tie.
Emancipation Proclamation
Declared all slaves in confederate-held territory were free
Significance of Gettysburg
South would never recover from defeat
Significance of Vicksburg
Union takes control of Mississippi River; south split into two
Appomattox Courthouse
Final engagement in war
Lincoln's 10% Plan called for...
Pardoning Confederate officials, allowing the CSA to send representatives to congress, and 10% of the population had to swear loyalty to the US.
Andrew Johnson
President after Lincoln's assassination.
Andrew Johnson's plan called for...
All states ratifying 13th Amendment, amnesty to most white southerners, and pledging loyalty to the US.
Radical Republicans
Political party in congress that fought for full citizenship and equal rights for African Americans. They also sought to punish the south.
Civil Rights Act
Equal rights granted to all citizens (except Native Americans)
Reconstruction act called for...
States that wanted to join the Union had to approve their state constitutions and ratify the 14th Amendment
Black codes limited...
freedom of formerly enslaved people.
White southerners who supported Radical Republicans (seen as traitors by many southerners)
White northerners who rushed to the south after the war. They went to profit from the south's misfortune.
In this system, farmers rented land on credit
Terrorist group formed in the south whose goals were to restore democratic control of the south and keep former slaves powerless.
The 3 Post War Problems
South destroyed, freedmen, and re-admitting confederate states
Rebuilding the south after the Civil War
Oil Baron
Steel Baron
Railroad Baron
Robber Baron
A businessman who used ruthless business tactics
Several companies agree to divide up business in an area and then fixed their prices at a high level
Combining your main company with other bought small companies
Group of corporations run by one board of directors
One company controls all the business of an industry
Vertical Integration
Gaining control of all the steps required to change raw material to the finished product
Free Enterprise System
Businesses are owned by private citizens. Companies compete to win customers by making the best products at the lowest prices
When the government does not bother businessmen
Horizontal Integration
One businessman buys more companies of his business, combining the board of the directors into one so all the money goes to him
Reform movements that sought to raise living standards and correct wrongs in American society
Writers who exposed corruption in American society
16th Amendment
Amendment that gave congress the power to create income taxes
17th Amendment
Amendment that provided for direct election of U.S. senators
Federal Reserve Act
Law that created the modern banking system
13th Amendment
Slavery abolished
14th Amendment
Civil rights
15th Amendment
Voting rights for all citizens (excludes women)
18th Amendment
Prohibition of alcohol
19th Amendment
Women's suffrage
Poll tax
Fee paid by a voter in order to vote
Literacy test
Examination to determine if a person is smart enough to vote
Dawes Act
Gave Natives land to get out of the way and stay put
Homestead Act
Gave Americans land to encourage settling in the west
Causes of the 2nd Industrial Revolution
Capitol, Labor, Inventions, Natural Resources, Transportation
Ban of alcoholic products
Yellow journalism
Exaggeration of the truth to encourage people to believe in something (newspapers)
Policy of staying out of foreign affairs
Policy of powerful countries to control the economic affairs of weaker countries/regions
To have pride in one's country