32 terms

English 10 Final Exam Review

narrator's perspective
describes who is telling the story
1st person
narrator's POV
uses I, me, we, us, our
2nd person
narrator addresses the reader

ex. You, dear reader, are going to LOVE what I have to tell you.
3rd person limited
narrator is not a person in the story
uses he, she, they

ex. Fred was an elf who loved to play with toy trains.
3rd person omniscient
narrator is NOT a person in the story- is outside the action and knows about all of the characters

ex. Fred was an elf who loved to play with toy trains. He had a sister named Anastasia who loved to play with dolls. The two of them would play together and Fred would use his toy trains to run over her dolls. He thought it was great fun. She hated it.
direct characterization
You learn about the characters by what the narrator tells you.

ex. Fred was an elf with pointy ears, he wore green pants and a red hat. He often was seen skipping through the halls in Santa's workshop whistling, "We Wish You a Merry Christmas." This was his favorite song, and Christmas was his favorite time of year.
indirect characterization
learning about the characters through what they say and do

ex. Santa often wondered about Fred. He seemed to be such an odd fellow. Every night, he would skip around the workshop and whistle Christmas songs, but he did it mostly when it was summer. When it was Christmas time, he would not be out as much, but would hide in his room with a drawing book.
a story of a person's life written by that person

ex. Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass
Autobiography of the Life of Mark Twain
distinctive way in which a work of literature is written

ex. The Masque of the Red Death- used big words, dark and scary images, lots of scary description

The Devil and Tom Walker- written more like an adventure story- had pirates, treasure, used a lot of setting description to show where they were

Snowfall- poem, rhymed (AA, BB, CC, DD)
the author's attitude toward the subject; look at word choice to figure out the tone

ex. Harold described Fred as "The freak from Santa's workshop." He skips and whistles all summer, then when the real work begins in the fall he disappears. What is wrong with him?? - tone is angry or bitter or jealous

ex. "I just love Fred! He has the most creative mind of any elf around," said Anastasia. - tone is happy, loving
internal conflict
a struggle between opposing forces within the character

ex. Every year, Fred found it to be so difficult to balance his work as an elf with his desire to create new toys. He wanted to spend all of his time drawing and designing, but his job was to cut out the bodies of wooden trains and do the sanding. He knew he had responsibilities, but it was so fulfilling to design his new creations! - struggle between meeting his responsibilities (he is supposed to do) and doing the things that he enjoys doing.
external conflict
pits the character against nature and society

ex. One afternoon, Harold had had enough. He barged into Fred's room with an unsanded toy train in his hand yelling, "HOW AM I SUPPOSED TO WRAP THIS? IT ISN'T EVEN DONE!" Fred looked up in surprise and said, "What? Oh, sorry, Harold. I completely forgot about the time." Harold was so angry he threw the toy at Fred and said, "YOU fix this!" then stormed out of the room. - conflict is man v. man (Harold v. Fred)
all meanings that word suggests; the narrator does not come right out and tell you what something means, you have to figure it out.

ex. Fred looked down at the shabby wooden train laying at his feet. He was unsure how this was going to make a child happy. Connotation of the word "shabby"- not nice looking
Narrative Poem
uses elements of character, setting, and plot

ex. "The First Snowfall" - has a setting (near a woods), characters (little girl and her father), has a story (the baby sister died and they see her grave)
extreme exaggeration

ex. Fred was upset the toys weren't good enough for the children; they were the "worst toys in the whole universe."
slant rhyme
does not really rhyme

Snow Bound
slow tracing down the thickening sky,
Its mute and ominous prophesy
end rhyme
similar sound at the end of words

ex. Twinkle, twinkle little STAR
How I wonder what you ARE
free verse
does not have regular patterns, no rhyme, is a poem

ex. (like the stuff we have written about Fred)
inverted syntax
reverse of expected order of words

ex. Yoda talks this way. "Bad idea that is."
uses human characteristics with inanimate objects

Paste this link into your browser:

ex. Beauty and the Beast has talking dishes, candlestick, clock, coat rack
person, place, or thing that has meaning in itself- something that represents another thing

ex. the American flag represents freedom
the Statue of Liberty represents welcoming immigrants to the US
Christians use the cross to represent God or Jesus
you expect one thing but get another

ex. copy this link into your browser

song "Ironic" by Alanis Morisette

traffic jam when you are already late- you need to be going fast, but you have no choice but to sit still
comparison without like or as

ex. life is a journey- life isn't really a trip, but you go through many different things throughout your life
relies on logic and facts to support a claim

ex. Santa told Fred, "If you take your time sanding your wooden toys, the children will be able to play with them and you could get a promotion so you would possibly be able to spend time making your drawings as your job."
based on the character of the speaker- appeals to their morals

ex. Anastasia said, "Fred, you are a good elf. You love making the children happy and don't want them to be without gifts to open on Christmas morning. You need to do your job correctly."
use of ideas that evoke strong feelings

ex. Harold said, "If you don't do your job right, Fred, I am going to beat you up!" This made Fred REALLY afraid!
draws attention to the point being made by using several words that start with the same letter

ex. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers
reference to a famous person, time period, event, or literary work

ex. Fred thought back to the story of The Little Engine that Could. He knew he could do his best work.
parallel construction
uses grammatical constructions to express ideas that relate in importance

ex. Fred reminded himself each morning: the toys need to be sanded, the toys need to be clean, the toys need to be painted.
primary source
materials written by people that were present at the event

ex. a diary from Abraham Lincoln talking about him making the decision to free the slaves
secondary source
materials from someone that was not present

ex. If a little kid heard about the struggle Fred was having with Santa, and wrote a letter to the North Pole News about what had been happening, that would be a secondary source.
story with 2 levels of meaning

ex. The Masque of the Red Death- showed a party, but were actually talking about people trying to escape death