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1 Species that produce relatively large numbers of offspring and invest little parental care are said to be:


1 structural similarities shared by a wide array of distantly related species that are inherited from a common ancestor, such as the number of bones in the forelimb, are termed:


1 monkeys are divided into two major groups:

New and Old World species

1 The X and Y chromosomes are called:

sex chromosomes

1 Regarding the example of the peppered moth,

a. the two color patterns resulted from genetic variation in the species.
c. natural selection acted upon pre-existing variation in the population.

1 The Y chromosome

carries a gene that causes a fetus to develop as male.

1 Which are not hominoids?

humans, chimps, gorillas, and orangutans are

1 Mitosis

the process requires only one cell division to be complete

1 The ABO blood type system consists of

3 alleles.

1 how many chromosomes occur in a normal human somatic cell?


1 A zygote

has the potential to develop into a new individual

1 who uses anthropological techniques to assist in crime investigations and to identify skeletal remains in:

forensic anthropologists

1 genetic drift

is a random change in allele frequencies, has its greatest effect in small populations, and includes the phenomenon of founder effect.

1 a hypothesis

is a provisional statement regarding certain scientific facts or observations.

1 primates possess __________, whereas other mammals do not.

highly prehensile hands and the presence of nails rather than claws on most or all digits.

1 after miosis, daughter cells contain the same amount of DNA as the original cell, this is due toL

DNA replication.

1 A prehensile tail

is seen in some New World monkeys, but not in any Old World monkeys.

1 Paleoanthropology

is the study of human evolution as evidenced by the fossil record.

1 birds and mammals

are modern endothermic animals

1 Cells

are the basic units of life

1 Type AB blood is an example of


1 Homozygous

when two copies of the same allele are present in the genotype

1 homologies

structural similarities shared by a species that are acquired by descent from a common ancestor.

1 Social relationships

are crucial to nonhuman primates.

1 Reproductive Success

"fitness" in an evolutionary sense, refers to an individuals..

1 Lemurs


1 Polygenic traits

-are governed by more than one genetic locus.
-their expression is often influenced by genetic/environmental interactions
-the alleles have an addictive effect on the phenotype.

1 Ribosomes

are important to protein synthesis

1 Process of Meiosis

-produces gametes
-are two cell divisions
-produces daughter cells with half the original amount of DNA found in the original cell.
-homologous chromosomes exchange genetic information
THEY DO NOT: produce daughter cells with the same amount of DNA found in the original cell.

1 Mendel's experiment

the uppercase letter was initially meant for homozygous for the allele for tallness.

1 Meiosis

reduction of chromosome number occurs during this.

1 Purely on the basis of genetic similarities, it would be consistent to classify humans and the great apes within the same:


1 Mendel

Discovered independent "units of heredity" (gene) during plant breeding experiments.

1 Lamarck

Early proponent of evolution species. Hypothesize the inheritance of acquired characteristics.

1 Lyell

geological uniformitarianism and the concept of "deep time"


calculated the age of the earth is 6000 years based on the Bible.

1 Malthus

Proposed that species reproduction will exceed the food supply and that intra-species competition for resources would result.


independently stated the concept of evolution driven by the process of "Natural Selection"

2 Current evidence indicates that hominins were bipedal by about

5-7 mya

2 adaptive advantages of bipedalism include

- freeing the hands for making and using tools
- earlier predator detection
-more efficient cooling of the body when one is exposed to the direct sun.

2 anatomical changes in hominins that are indicative of habitual bipedal locomotion include:

shortening and broadening of the pelvis.

2 Relative dating techniques

include biostratigraphy

2 "Robust" paranthropines (P. bosie/P.robustus) probably had a diet primarily composed of

abrasive and heavy foods such as grasses, seeds and nuts.

2 Shortly after Homo erectus fossils are found in East Africe, similar hominins also appear in


2 Homo Habilis

is the hominin species most likely associated with the Oldowan stone tool tradition


all hominins found outside of Africa are members of this genus

2 Homo sapiens would have to exist at least another _______ years to match the time-span of Homo Erectus

1 million

2 The average Neanderthal was

more robust than modern humans
---and the earliest definitive archeological evidence of burials is attributed to Neanderthals.

2 ____make the best samples for the K/Ar dating method

Volcanic rock

2 The oldest fossils of Homo Sapiens are found in


2 Current evidence indicates that ____was the first hominid to migrate out of Africa

Homo Erectus

2 Biostratigraphy

relative dating method is used to CROSS-CORRELATE dates from south african plio-pleistocene hominin sites.

2 The "Complete Replacement Theory" states that

none of the above

2 Certain organic materials less than 75,000 years old:

would be the best suited to the carbon-14 dating technique. (earliest)

2 By using the designation of Homo Habilis Louis Leakey was implying:

-that a larger brain was related to the ability to make the stone tools found with he fossils.
-the Homo lineage was distinct from the australopithecines.
-the homo habilis was more closely related to modern humans than were the austrolopithecines.

2 _____was contemporaneous with Paranthropus but had a significantly larger brain

Homo Habilis

2 Miocene hominoid fossils have been found in:

Africa, Europe, Asia

2 Homo erectus fossils first appear in east africa and are dated to about ____ mya


2 In Africa, Neanderthals have been found at:

Laetoli, Broken Hill, Olduvia Gorge,

2 Bifacially flaked hand axes characterize the ____stone tool industry.


2 Homo erectus DIFFERS most distinctly from modern humans in:

cranial size & shape

2 the dating method that uses the principle that undisturbed underlying geological deposits are older than overlying geologic deposits is called:

stratigraphic dating

2 If an isotope had a half-life of 4 billion years, than in 4 billion years

1/2 of the original amount will still be present.

2 the earliest stone tools are about

2.5 million years old.

2 The hominin fossils from Laetoli and Hadar (Lucy) are classified by most researchers as

Austrolopithecus Afarensis

2 The earliest member of our own genus can be referred to as..

Homo Habilis

2 Based on the current fossil evidence, the initial hominin divergence from the African hominoids most likely occurred..

during the late Miocene

From 6-7 mya ---> 35,000ya

1. Sanelanthropus tchadensis (Chad)
2. Australopithecus Afarensis (Ethiopia)
3. Australopithecus Africanus (South Africa)
4. australopithecus Boisei (Tanzania)
5. homo Habilis (Kenya)
6. homo erectus (Java-Indonesia)
7. Homo Sapien (France)


state of increased caliber of blood vessels


refers to an adaptive change that is reversible when condition return to their former condition


the basic building block of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA; an organic compound made up of nitrogenous base and sugar.

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