an analytical approach to understanding the diversity and evolutionary relationships of an organism, both present day and extinct
variety of organisms and the ecosystems they form
ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities and differences
grouping organisms by their similarites or relationships
1. evolutionary history of a group of organisms from a common ancestor; 2. classifcations based on common ancestors; 3. based on structural, behavioral, molecular, and other similarites
group with a common ancestor; taxa are monophyletic
"Father of modern technology" who developed binomial nomenclature
genus name + specific epither
Archaea, Eubactera, Eukarya
lack simple RNA polymerase
peptidoglycan in cell walls
bacteria, archaea, protista, plantae, fungi, animalia
autotrophs and heterotrophs
autotrophs, heterotrophs, protozoa, algae, slime mold
heterotrophic, absorbers, saprotrophs
similarity due to shared ancestry
similarity due to convergent evolution
co-authored theory of natural selection with Darwin
all alleles for all loci present in a population
random changes in allele frequencies in small populations, decreases genetic variation in population, changes usually not adaptive
sudden decrease in size of a population cause by adverse environmental factors
genetic drift that occurs when a small population colonizes a new area
a population becomes reductively isolated, separated gene pools diverge, geneic flow stops
extra sets of chromoomes due to accidents during cell division
remnants of structures that served important functions in the organism's ancestors
major points of neo-Darwinism
A. genetic variation among individuals ina populations B. populations tend to produce more offspring that will usually survive. C. offspring compete for limited resources D. suvival of the fittest E. environment selects best fit
role of mutations in evolution
examples of microevolution
sickle cell, antibiotic resistance
geographically separated populations, most common form of speciation
new species evolves within the same geographic region as parental species
Allele and genotype frequencies do not change from generation to generation in a population at genetic equilibrium
Hardy-Weinberg principle only applies if
mating is random in population •no net mutations change allele frequencies •population is large •individuals don't migrate between populations •natural selection does not occur
favors the mean over genotypic extremes
favors one phenotypic extreme over another, causing shift in phenotypic mean
favors two or more phenotypic extremes
viruses that parasitize bacteria; also called just phages
provirus; becomes part of the host cell's genome for a period of time before a lytic cycle of reproduction ensues.
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