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an analytical approach to understanding the diversity and evolutionary relationships of an organism, both present day and extinct


variety of organisms and the ecosystems they form


ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities and differences


grouping organisms by their similarites or relationships


1. evolutionary history of a group of organisms from a common ancestor; 2. classifcations based on common ancestors; 3. based on structural, behavioral, molecular, and other similarites


group with a common ancestor; taxa are monophyletic


"Father of modern technology" who developed binomial nomenclature

binomial nomenclature

genus name + specific epither

three domais

Archaea, Eubactera, Eukarya


lack simple RNA polymerase


peptidoglycan in cell walls



6 kingdoms

bacteria, archaea, protista, plantae, fungi, animalia

bacteria kingdom

autotrophs and heterotrophs

archaea kingdom


protista kingdom

autotrophs, heterotrophs, protozoa, algae, slime mold

plantae kingdom

photosynthetic autotrophs

fungi kingdom

heterotrophic, absorbers, saprotrophs

animalia kingdom

heterotrophic ingestive


similarity due to shared ancestry


similarity due to convergent evolution

Alfred Wallace

co-authored theory of natural selection with Darwin

gene pool

all alleles for all loci present in a population

genetic drift

random changes in allele frequencies in small populations, decreases genetic variation in population, changes usually not adaptive

bottleneck effect

sudden decrease in size of a population cause by adverse environmental factors


genetic drift that occurs when a small population colonizes a new area

adaptive radiation

a population becomes reductively isolated, separated gene pools diverge, geneic flow stops


extra sets of chromoomes due to accidents during cell division

vestigial structures

remnants of structures that served important functions in the organism's ancestors

major points of neo-Darwinism

A. genetic variation among individuals ina populations B. populations tend to produce more offspring that will usually survive. C. offspring compete for limited resources D. suvival of the fittest E. environment selects best fit

role of mutations in evolution

occur spontaneously

examples of microevolution

sickle cell, antibiotic resistance

allopatric speciation

geographically separated populations, most common form of speciation

sympatric speciation

new species evolves within the same geographic region as parental species

Hardy-Weinberg principle

Allele and genotype frequencies do not change from generation to generation in a population at genetic equilibrium

Hardy-Weinberg principle only applies if

mating is random in population •no net mutations change allele frequencies •population is large •individuals don't migrate between populations •natural selection does not occur

stabilizing selection

favors the mean over genotypic extremes

directional selection

favors one phenotypic extreme over another, causing shift in phenotypic mean

disruptive selection

favors two or more phenotypic extremes


viruses that parasitize bacteria; also called just phages


provirus; becomes part of the host cell's genome for a period of time before a lytic cycle of reproduction ensues.

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