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an analytical approach to understanding the diversity and evolutionary relationships of an organism, both present day and extinct
ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities and differences
1. evolutionary history of a group of organisms from a common ancestor; 2. classifcations based on common ancestors; 3. based on structural, behavioral, molecular, and other similarites
random changes in allele frequencies in small populations, decreases genetic variation in population, changes usually not adaptive
a population becomes reductively isolated, separated gene pools diverge, geneic flow stops
remnants of structures that served important functions in the organism's ancestors
major points of neo-Darwinism
A. genetic variation among individuals ina populations B. populations tend to produce more offspring that will usually survive. C. offspring compete for limited resources D. suvival of the fittest E. environment selects best fit
Allele and genotype frequencies do not change from generation to generation in a population at genetic equilibrium
Hardy-Weinberg principle only applies if
mating is random in population •no net mutations change allele frequencies •population is large •individuals don't migrate between populations •natural selection does not occur
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