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41 terms

Biology 112 Exam 1

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systematics
an analytical approach to understanding the diversity and evolutionary relationships of an organism, both present day and extinct
biodiversity
variety of organisms and the ecosystems they form
taxonomy
ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities and differences
classification
grouping organisms by their similarites or relationships
phylogeny
1. evolutionary history of a group of organisms from a common ancestor; 2. classifcations based on common ancestors; 3. based on structural, behavioral, molecular, and other similarites
clade
group with a common ancestor; taxa are monophyletic
Linneus
"Father of modern technology" who developed binomial nomenclature
binomial nomenclature
genus name + specific epither
three domais
Archaea, Eubactera, Eukarya
Archaea
lack simple RNA polymerase
Eubacteria
peptidoglycan in cell walls
Eukarya
eukaryotes
6 kingdoms
bacteria, archaea, protista, plantae, fungi, animalia
bacteria kingdom
autotrophs and heterotrophs
archaea kingdom
extremophiles
protista kingdom
autotrophs, heterotrophs, protozoa, algae, slime mold
plantae kingdom
photosynthetic autotrophs
fungi kingdom
heterotrophic, absorbers, saprotrophs
animalia kingdom
heterotrophic ingestive
homology
similarity due to shared ancestry
analogy
similarity due to convergent evolution
Alfred Wallace
co-authored theory of natural selection with Darwin
gene pool
all alleles for all loci present in a population
genetic drift
random changes in allele frequencies in small populations, decreases genetic variation in population, changes usually not adaptive
bottleneck effect
sudden decrease in size of a population cause by adverse environmental factors
founder
genetic drift that occurs when a small population colonizes a new area
adaptive radiation
a population becomes reductively isolated, separated gene pools diverge, geneic flow stops
polyploidy
extra sets of chromoomes due to accidents during cell division
vestigial structures
remnants of structures that served important functions in the organism's ancestors
major points of neo-Darwinism
A. genetic variation among individuals ina populations B. populations tend to produce more offspring that will usually survive. C. offspring compete for limited resources D. suvival of the fittest E. environment selects best fit
role of mutations in evolution
occur spontaneously
examples of microevolution
sickle cell, antibiotic resistance
allopatric speciation
geographically separated populations, most common form of speciation
sympatric speciation
new species evolves within the same geographic region as parental species
Hardy-Weinberg principle
Allele and genotype frequencies do not change from generation to generation in a population at genetic equilibrium
Hardy-Weinberg principle only applies if
mating is random in population •no net mutations change allele frequencies •population is large •individuals don't migrate between populations •natural selection does not occur
stabilizing selection
favors the mean over genotypic extremes
directional selection
favors one phenotypic extreme over another, causing shift in phenotypic mean
disruptive selection
favors two or more phenotypic extremes
bacteriophage
viruses that parasitize bacteria; also called just phages
prophage
provirus; becomes part of the host cell's genome for a period of time before a lytic cycle of reproduction ensues.