This unit covers the topics of plate tectonics, fault boundaries, crustal stresses and mechanisms of plate motion.
This unit discusses causes of earthquake and volcanic actions, precautions and safety measures, as well as zones of occurrences, and types of seismic waves.
The process in which the ocean floor is extended when two plates move apart, forming a crack where magma can rise to the surface, cooling and forming new crust.
A change in the Earth's magnetic field.
The driving mechanism of plate tectonics - caused when heated magma rises, cool, and then sinks.
When continental crust begins to separate, the split crust forms a long narrow depression.
The degree of damage from an earthquake. Can be measured by the Mercalli Scale.
Measure of the energy released during an earthquake, which can be measured/described using the Richter Scale.
Swift moving, clouds of dust, gas, ash and other volcanic material produced by a violent eruption.
The point on Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake.
The point where slippage first occurs under the Earth's surface where an earthquake originates.
Volcanoes located far from plate boundaries - caused by unusually thin areas of crust where hot magma is able to push through the surface.
Vibrations of the ground during an earthquake.
The resistance of a substance to flow. (i.e. water has a lower viscosity than maple syrup)
Is located beneath the earths crust. Part of the mantle consists of the molten material that circulates beneath the earths crust.
A rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust.
The solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere; made of mantle rock that flows very slowly, which allows tectonic plates to move on top of it
the zone between the crust and mantle that marks a boundary between the 2, discovered because it changes the speed of seismic waves
A device that measures the strength of an earthquake.
A logarithmic scale of 1 to 10 used to express the energy released by an earthquake
A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause at a particular place
primary earthquake waves travel fastest
secondary earthquake waves only goes through solids
The hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations
A theory stating that the earth's surface is broken into plates that move.
A supercontinent containing all of Earth's land that existed about 225 million years ago.
the process in which new material at a ridge or rift pushes older material aside, moving the tectonic plates away from the ridge
A boundary where the plates are moving AWAY from each other.
A plate boundary where two plates move toward each other.
One plate going under another plate
The boundary between tectonic plates that are sliding past each other horizontally
A fold in rock that bends upward into an arch
A downward fold in rock formed by compression in Earth's crust
A type of fault where the hanging wall slides downward; caused by tension in the crust
A type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward; caused by compression in the crust
a reverse fault in which the hanging wall slides over to the foot wall.
Formed when magma collects and pushes the rock layers above it into a rounded-dome shape.
Mountains created as a result of erosion.
Magma that reaches Earth's surface
A short, steep, cone-shaped hill or small mountain made of volcanic ash, cinders, and bombs piled up around a volcano's opening
A low, flat, gently sloping volcano built from many flows of fluid, low-viscosity basaltic lava