50 terms

Unit 5 - Hydrology and Oceanography

This unit discusses Earth's water supply, both on the surface and under ground. Students will look at aquifers, wells, river formations, watersheds, sinkholes and threats to our groundwater supply A unit discussing the world ocean, seawater composition, the origins of the oceans, currents, gyres, global ocean movements and tides.
STUDY
PLAY
Headwaters
The source of a river (A)
Tributary
A stream or river that flows into a larger river
Drainage Basin
the area from which a single stream or river and its tributaries drains all of the water
Channal
The bed of a stream or river
Gradient
a rate of inclination; a slope
Streams
any body of flowing water confined within a channel, regardless of size
Alluvial Fan
A fan-shaped deposit of sediment formed when a stream's slope is abruptly reduced
Floodplain
A low plain adjacent to a river that is formed chiefly of river sediment and is subject to flooding
Levee
A wall built along a river bank to prevent flooding
Meander
A looplike bend in the course of a river
Oxbow Lake
A crescent-shaped lake (often temporary) that is formed when a meander of a river is cut off from the main channel
Wetland
A land area that is covered with a shallow layer of water during some or all of the year
Marsh
Sea of reeds
Swamp
An area of low, spongy land too wet to farm but usually supporting an abundance of coarse grasses, trees, or other vegetation.
Sonar
A device that determines the distance of an object under water by recording echoes of sound waves
Continental Margin
boundary between continental land deep ocean basins
Abyssal Plain
A large, flat, almost level area of the deep-ocean basin
Rift Valley
A deep valley that forms where two plates move apart
Thermocline
In water, a distinctive temperature transition zone that separates an upper layer that is mixed by wind and a colder, deep layer that is not mixed
pH scale
measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14
Surface Current
A horizontal movement of ocean water that is caused by wind and that occurs at or near the ocean's surface
Coriolis Effect
The apparent curving of the path of a moving object from an otherwise straight path due to the earth's rotation
Crest
Highest point of a wave
Trough
Lowest point of a wave
Rip Current
A rush of water that flows rapidly back to sea through a narrow opening
Artesian Well
A pressurized groundwater system, including an impermeable base layer, and a cap rock.
Eutrophication
Process by which lakes becomes rich in nutrients from the surrounding watershed, resulting in a change in the kinds of organisms in the lake.
Aquifer
Permeable underground layer through which groundwater flows relatively easily.
Delta
Triangular deposit, usually made up of silt and clay particles, that forms where a stream enters a large body of water.
Estuary
Coastal area of brackish water formed where the lower end of a freshwater river or stream enters the ocean; provides an excellent source of food and shelter to commercially important marine organisms.
Salinity
Measure of the amount salts dissolved in seawater, which is 35 ppt on average.
Temperature Profile
Plots changing ocean water temperatures with depth, which varies, depending on location and season.
Tide
Rapidly flowing ocean current that can cut deep-sea canyons in continental slopes and deposit the sediments in the form of continental rise.
Hydrologic Cycle
The continuous circulation of water among the atmosphere, the oceans, and the earth.
Evaporation
Liquid to gas
Transpiration
the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants
Condensation
Gas to Liquid
Infiltration
Flow of water from the land surface into the subsurface.
Watershed
An area of land that drains into a river or lake.
Porosity
The percentage of the total volume of a rock or sediment that consists of open spaces.
Permeability
Ability of rock or soil to allow water to flow through it
Zone of Aeration
Region above the water table where materials are moist, but pores contain mostly air.
Zone of Saturation
Region below Earth's surface where all the pores of a material are completely filled with groundwater.
Water Table
The upper level of the saturated zone of groundwater
Springs
A natural source of water formed when water from an aquifer percolates up to the ground surface.
Saltwater Intrusion
Movement of salt water into freshwater aquifers in coastal and inland areas as groundwater is withdrawn faster than it is recharged by precipitation.
Ebb
Movement of water out at sea (or tide)
Flow
Movement of water in (rising tide)
Tidal Range
The difference in levels of ocean water at high tide and low tide
Spring Tide
When the tidal range is greatest. (full moon and new moon)
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