50 terms

Unit 6 - Meteorology and Weather

A unit discussing the atmosphere, air masses, fronts, global climate zones, local climates and climate change. A unit discussing the development of weather, instruments used to gather and interpret weather data, how storms form, what the major types of storms are, and severe storm safety.
STUDY
PLAY
Climate
Average weather of a particular area over a long period of time - Includes annual variations in temperatures and precipitation, which are influenced by latitude, closeness of lakes and oceans, topography, wind patterns and air masses.
El Nino
Warm ocean current that develops off the western coast of South America and can cause short-term climatic changes felt worldwide.
La Nina
"Normal" year, easterly trade winds and ocean currents pool warm water in the western Pacific, allowing upwelling of nutrient rich water off the West coast of South America.
Ozone Layer
Layer of the stratosphere with a high concentration of ozone; absorbs most of the Sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation
Temperature Inversion
Increase in temperature with height in an atmospheric level, which inverts the temperature-altitude relationship and can worsen air-pollution problems.
Air Mass
Large body of air that takes on the characteristics of the area over which it forms; can be described by its stability, temperature, and humidity.
Coriolis Effect
Deflects moving particles, such as air, to the right above the equator and to the left below the equator; caused by the Earth's rotation and combines with the heat imbalance found on Earth to create the trade winds, polar easterlies, and prevailing westerlies.
Doppler Effect
Change in the wave frequency that occurs in energy when that energy moves toward or away from an observer.
Troposphere
Bottom layer in the atmosphere - where we live, breathe . It is also where all the weather occurs
Stratosphere
12 to 50 km, Ozone held here, absorbs UV radiation
Mesosphere
50 to 80 km, most meteorites burn up here, 3rd layer
Thermosphere
The uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases, 4th layer
Ionosphere
the lower part of the thermosphere, where electrically charged particles called ions are found
Exosphere
The outer layer of the thermosphere, extending outward into space.
Conduction
Form of heat transfer where heat energy is directly transferred between molecules through molecular collisions or direct contact.
Convection
Process by which, in a fluid being heated, the warmer part of the mass will rise and the cooler portions will sink.
Greenhouse Effect
Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
Air Quality
The condition of air in terms of the amount of pollutants it contains.
Global Warming
An increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
Carbon Dioxide
(CO2) Sources include the combustion of fossil fuels. Effects: GREENHOUSE GAS - contributes to global warming.
Sulfur Dioxide
a colorless toxic gas (SO2) that occurs in the gases from volcanoes or burning coal
chlorofluorocarbon
(CFC) cause ozone depletion
Methane
A colorless, odorless natural gas that can have a negative impact on the environment (GREENHOUSE GAS)
Sublimation
a change directly from the solid to the gaseous state without becoming liquid
Psychrometer
An instrument used to measure relative humidity, consisting of a wet-bulb thermometer and a dry-bulb thermometer.
Hygrometer
An instrument that measures humidity
Heat Index
feel of temperature based on actual temperature and relative humidity
Frost
When water vapor freezes on ground level
Deposition
Gas to Solid
Condensation
Gas to Liquid
Stratus
Clouds that form in flat layers and often cover much of the sky.
Cumulus
Clouds that look like fluffy, rounded piles of cotton
Cirrus
Clouds that look thin, wispy, or feathery.
Alto
High clouds.
Nimbus
a dark gray cloud bearing rain
Advection
Occurs when dominate heat transfer in horizontal. wind may transfer warm or cool air horizontally.
High Pressure
A mass of sinking cool air that usually bring fair weather.
Low Pressure
A mass of rising warm air that usually bring wet, stormy weather.
Barometer
An instrument that measures atmospheric pressure
Aneroid
An instrument that measures changes in air pressure without using a liquid
Millibar
Metric unit of atmospheric pressure
Cold Front
Cold air advances toward warm air and pushes it up and out of the way. Blue line with triangles
Warm Front
A front where warm air moves over cold air and brings drizzly rain and then are followed by warm and clear weather. Red line with Ovals
Occluded
a front where a warm air mass is caught between two colder air masses
Stationary Front
A boundary between air masses that don't move possibly causing rain for several days
Hurricane
A severe storm that develops over tropical oceans and whose strong winds of more than 120 km/h spiral in toward the intensely low-pressure storm center
Typhoon
A tropical cyclone occurring in the western Pacific or Indian oceans
Eye
Area in the center of a hurricane that is devoid of clouds and calm
Anemometer
An instrument used to measure wind speed
Doppler Radar
tracking system that sends out pulses of radio waves to provide detailed pictures of weather
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