Psychology Unit 4
Terms in this set (100)
Sensory receptors & nervous system receive & represent stimulus energies from environment
Organizing & interpreting information, enabling recognition of meaningful objects & events
Analysis beginning with sensory receptors & working up to the brain
Processing guided by higher-level mental processes, like experience & expectations
Focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
Failing to see visible objects when attention is directed elsewhere
Failing to notice changes in the environment
Conversion of one form of energy into another
Study of relationships between stimuli & our psychological experience
Minimum stimulation needed to detect stimulus 50% of the time
Signal Detection Theory
Predicts how & when we detect faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise)
Below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
Activation of certain associations, predisposing one's perception/memory/response
Minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of time
To perceive as different, stimuli must differ by minimum percentage
Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
Mental predisposition to perceive one thing & not another
Distance between the peaks of a wave
Color that is determined by wavelength
Brightness that is determined by amplitude, or amount of energy
Adjustable opening in center of the eye
Muscle tissue that controls the size of the pupil
Transparent structure that changes shape to focus image on retina
Inner surface of the eye where transduction takes place
Process of the lens changing shape to focus objects
Retinal receptors → Grayscale, low light, peripheral vision
Retinal receptors → Color, bright light, central vision
Carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
Where optic nerve leaves the eye; Doesn't have receptor cells
Central focus point in the retina, with many cones
Nerve cells in brain that respond to specific stimulus features
Processing of many aspects of stimulus/problem simultaneously
Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory
Retina contains red, blue, & green receptors which produce color perceptions
Opposing retinal processes enable color vision
Organization of visual field into objects apart from their surroundings
Perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups
Ability to see objects & judge distance in 3D though retina sees 2D
Laboratory device for testing depth perception
Depth cues that depend on use of two eyes
By comparing different images from two retinas, we judge depth
Depth cues that depend only on one eye
Illusion of movement created when adjacent lights blink in succession
Perceiving objects as unchanging though illumination & retinal cues change
Perceiving familiar objects with consistent color though illumination & wavelength change
Ability to adjust to an artificially displaced visual field
The sense or act of hearing
Number of wavelengths that pass a point in given time
Highness or lowness dependent on frequency
Chamber that concentrates vibration from eardrum to cochlea with 3 bones
Site of transduction from sound waves to neural impulses
Contains cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Caused by damage to cochlea's receptor cells or auditory nerves
Conduction Hearing Loss
Caused by damage to system that conducts waves to cochlea
Device for converting sounds into electrical signals & stimulating auditory nerve
Links pitch heard with place where cochlea's membrane is stimulated
Rate of nerve impulses matches the frequency of tone, enabling pitch
Spinal cord blocks/allows pain signals to pass to brain
System for sensing position & movement of individual body parts
Sense of body movement & position, including balance
One sense may influence another, as with smell & taste
Influence of bodily sensations on cognitive preferences & judgements
Our awareness of ourselves & our environment.
Social interaction that creates focus, relaxation, & heightened suggestibility in subject.
Suggestion to be executed after subject is no longer hypnotized.
Split in consciousness, allowing various thoughts & behaviors to occur simultaneously.
Biological clock; regular bodily rhythms in a 24-hour cycle.
Rapid eye movement sleep; sleep stage when dreams commonly occur.
Relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
Periodic, natural loss of consciousness.
False sensory experiences in the absence of external stimulus.
Large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.
Non-rapid eye movement sleep; all sleep stages except REM sleep.
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)
Pair of cell clusters in hypothalamus that control circadian rhythm.
Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.
Sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks.
Sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing & momentary awakenings.
Sleep disorder characterized by high arousal & appearance of being terrified.
Sequence of images, emotions, & thoughts passing through a sleeper's mind.
Remembered story line of a dream, according to Freud.
Underlying meaning of a dream, according to Freud.
Tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation.
Substance Use Disorder
Continued substance craving & use despite life disruption & physical risk
Chemical substance that alters perceptions & moods
Diminishing effect with regular use of same dose of drug
Compulsive craving of drugs/behaviors despite adverse known consequences
Discomfort & distress that follows discontinuing an addictive drug/behavior
Drugs that reduce neural activity & slow body functions
Alcohol Use Disorder
Marked by tolerance, withdrawal, & drive to continue problematic use
Drugs that depress central nervous system activity
Opium & derivatives that depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain & anxiety
Drugs that excite neural activity & speed up body functions
Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing energy & mood changes
Stimulating & highly addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco
Powerful & addictive stimulant from coca plant, increases alertness & euphoria
Stimulates central nervous system & causes dopamine release
Produces euphoria & social intimacy by triggering serotonin-producing neurons
Psychedelic drugs that distort perceptions & evoke sensory images
Powerful hallucinogenic drug, also known as acid
Altered state of consciousness reported after close brush with death
Major active ingredient in marijuana, triggering mild hallucinations & other effects
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