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Telescope and Microscope
instruments that made fresh scientific discoveries possible.
Helped spread new ideas quickly
The greatest astronomer of antiquity
The tenth sphere that gives motion to itself and other spheres
Developed the heliocentric view of the universe...debunking the Ptolemaic system
Kepler's first Law
Orbits around the sun were elliptical with the sun sitting near one end of the ellipse
the first man to make regular observations with a telescope
Three things Galileo found with the use of a telescope
Mountains on the moon, four moons around Jupiter, and sun spots
the greatest genius of the Scientific Revolution
Developed the universal law of gravitation
Universal law of gravitation is...
every object int he universe is attracted to every other object by a force called Gravity
Dissected human bodies and accurately described the organs and general structure of the body
discovered that the heart was the beginning point of circulation... not the liver
Developed the principal that led to developments like the syringe
the founder of Modern Chemistry
Rene Des Cartes
Strongly influenced modern thought... "I think, therefore I am"
Developed the Scientific Method
How does inductive reasoning work?
by promoting learning about nature
the favorite word of the intellectuals
Every person is born with tabula rasa (a blank mind)
Newer and Better Society
Environments Changed, people had he right experiences, people could change, the change would result in a >>>
Believed the world was like a giant machine
Most leaders of the enlightenment were from what country
To philosophers the role of philosophy was to do what?
Change the world
According to Montesquieu, how did the three branches of government limit and control each other
Checks and Balances
The greatest figure of the enlightenment
What religious philosophy did Voltaire support
Based on reason and natural law
Who contributed the encyclopedia
To let people do what they want
Founder of the Modern social sciences of economics
Required certain printed materials (legal documents and newspapers) have a stamp on them showing that a tax was paid to Britain
First Continental Congress
Philadelphia 1774, Members of congress urged colonists to arm themselves and organize into militias
Declaration of Independence
July 4, 1776 - second continental congress, the official beginning of the American Revolution
Who wrote the Declaration of Independence
Which country supplied arms and money to the American Rebels
What British General was forced to surrender to George Washington in 1781
What treated recognized the independence of the Colonies
Treaty of Paris
What was the United States first constitution
Articles of Confederation
Gaining ideas from Motesquieu, what did the new constitution create?
Who is the head of the executive branch
What tow things does the legislative branch consist of?
Elected representatives and the Senate
What forms the Judicial Branch
Supreme and other courts
the Bill of Rights
the first 10 amendments of the Constitution
What are some of these rights
Freedom of religion, speech, press, petition and assembly
Many of the bill of rights came from natural rights proposed by which Philosophe
What were three basic roles the Government should have according to Adam Smith
The function of Army, Police and keep up certain public works
Who was the most famous philosophe of the later enlightenment
Jean- Jaques Rousseau
What is a social contract
Where society agrees to be governed by the general will
Who was the founder of modern European and American movements for women's rights?
Who wrote the History of Tom Jones, a Foundling
As reading grew what type of material was developed for the general public
Newspapers and Magazines
Who started methodism
What was one important reform of Methodism in the early 1800s
end of slavery
Which artistic style was about grace, style and gentle action
Who created "The Creation and "The Seasons"
Who was the Child prodigy of music
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
three of the world's greatest operas written by Mozart?
The Marriage of Figaro, the Magic Flute and Don Giovanni
What were the natural rights the Philosophes believed all people should have...
equality before law
Which country became a major European power under Frederick William I and Frederick II?
Believed subjects should do everything for the King EXCEPT give up their own salvation which belonged to God...
Enlarged the Prussian army by actively binging the nobility into civil service
Put and end to the use of torture except in treason and murder cases, and granted limited freedom of speech and press also increased religious toleration?
Two leaders from Austrian Empire
Fredrick William and Fredrick II
Who was not open to the philosopes call for reform?
Abolished serfdom, ended the death penalty, established the death penalty and made religious reforms of toleration? Truly ruled on enlightenment principles
Who in the end did nothing knowing their success depended on the support of the Russian nobility?
Two wars fought in Europe in the mid 17th century?
Austria Succession and Seven Years War
Treaty of Aix -la - chapelle
Diplomatic revolution in Austria separating from it's chief ally France
In India the struggle between Britain and France was known as...
Great War for Empire
The greatest conflicts in the 7 year war were where?
What treaty set terms of peace - France gave Canada and the lands east of the Mississippi to England, Spain gave Florida to British control France gave Louisiana territory to the Spanish... Made Britain the greatest Colonial power?
Treaty of Paris
What resulted from the 1688 Glorious Revolution
Bill of Rights
head of the Cabinet of minsters expanded British Empire by gaining Canada and India
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