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for Social Studies midterm exam.

Treaty of Tordesillas

divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Portugal and Spain


belief in the benefits of profitable trading; commercialism.


a fortified military settlement


a fleet of warships


a member of the assembly of colonial Maryland or Virginia

Indentured Servant

a person who signs and is bound by a formal agreement to work for another for a specified time, esp. in return for payment or travel expenses and maintenance.

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

orders to describe the government set up by the Connecticut River Towns

Toleration Act of 1649

law mandating religious tolerance for Catholics (Maryland)

Charter colony

king granted authority to colonial government establishing the rules under which the colony was to be governed

Proprietary colony

one or more individuals remain subject to their parent state's sanctions

Royal colony

ruled by governor appointed by monarch

Subsistence farming

where farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their families

Proclamation of 1763

following British acquisition of French territory after French and Indian War

Committee of Correspondence

an organization that spreads political ideas through the colonies

Non-importation agreements

boycott of British goods

Northwest Passage

What were Dutch, English, and French explorers looking for in America?

Martin Luther

nailed list of complaints about the Catholic Church on church door and rejected many Church practices.

John Calvin

believed in all-powerful nature of God and that good works alone did not ensure a person's salvation

fishing and fur trade

What were the French interested in when they came to North America?


What group of people landed at Plymouth, Massachusetts?

Captain John Smith found settlers to work, explored area, and gathered corn

Who were the leaders of the Jamestown colony? How did they help?

gold, fish, furs

What 3 things did the Virginia Company send settlers to search for?

Roger Williams

Who founded the colony of Rhode Island for those who were kicked out of Massachusetts?

John Winthrop

Who was the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony?

Maryland and Virginia

In which colonies was tobacco the main cash crop?

New York and Pennsylvania

In which section of the colonies was wheat the main cash crop?

South Carolina and Georgia

In which colonies was rice the main cash crop?

grain industry, clothing, shipbuilding, and fishing

List the businesses and industries of the New England colonies.

Limited wages, applied taxes, and enacted new acts

Because of mercantilism, how did England treat its colonies?

Benjamin Franklin

Who was the best example of the Enlightenment?

Navigation Acts

What laws required that the colonies only trade with the British Empire?

The New England Primer

What book did colonial students use to learn to read?

Benjamin Franklin

Who suggested the Albany Plan of Union?

It proposed a single government against the French.

What was the Albany Plan of Union?

control of world trade and power of the seas

What reasons led to French and Indian War in North America?

William Pitt

Who was the British Prime Minister that changed their strategies and helped the British win the war?

George Washington

Who was the militia leader that tried to get the French to leave and ended up surrendering to the French army?

prevented colonists from moving west of Appalachian

Proclamation of 1763

lowered tax on imported molasses

Sugar Act

colonists must supply British troops with housing and other supplies

Quartering Act

taxes on printed material

Stamp Act

right to tax and make decisions for colonies for whatever reason

Declaratory Act

new taxes only applied to glass, tea, paper

Townshend Acts

closed Boston Harbor, banned town meetings, forced colonists to provide housing to soldiers

Coercive Acts

allowed officers to search anywhere for smuggled goods

Writs of Assistance

allowed smugglers to be sent to special courts without juries

Vice-admiralty courts


Liberty Affair

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