Chemistry 6.1-6.4

Chemistry 1 H
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Terms in this set (...)

periodic law
The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.
periodic table
An arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers so that the elements with similar properties fall in the same column or group.
lanthanides
The 14 elements with the atomic numbers 58-71.
actinides
The 14 elements with the atomic numbers 90-103.
alkali metals
The elements of group 1 of the periodic table.
akaline-earth metals
The elements of group 2 of the periodic table.
transition metals
The d-block elements are metals with typical metallic properties.
main-group elements
The p-block elements together with the s-block elements.
halogens
The elements of group 17 of the periodic table.
atomic radius
1/2 the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together.
ion
An atom or group of bonded atoms that has a positive or negative charge.
ionization
Any process that results in the formation of an ion.
ionization energy
The energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element.
electron affinity
The energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom.
cation
a positive ion
anion
a negative ion
valence electrons
The electrons available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds.
electronegativity
A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons from another atom in the compound.
chemical bond
a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together
ionic bonding
chemical bonding that results from the electrical attraction between cations and anions
covalent bonding
results from the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms
nonpolar-covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge
polar
have an uneven distribution of charge
polar-covalent bond
covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons
bond energy
energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms
bond length
the distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy, that is, the average distance between two bonded atoms
chemical formula
indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts
diatomic molecule
a molecule containing only two atoms
double bond
a covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms
electron-dot notation
an electron-configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the elements symbol
Lewis structure
formulas in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner-shell electrons, dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent electron pairs in covalent bonds, and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represent unshared electrons
lone pair
pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom
molecular compound
a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules
molecular formula
shows the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound
molecule
a neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds
multiple bond
double and triple bonds are referred
octet rule
chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level
resonance
bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure
single bond
is a covalent bond in which one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms
structural formula
indicates the kind, number, arrangement, and bonds but not the unshared pairs of the atoms in molecule
triple bond
covalent bond in which 3 pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms
unshared pair
a pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom
formula unit
the simplest collection of atoms from which ionic compound's formula can be established
ionic compound
composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal
lattice energy
the energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions
polyatomic ion
a charged group of covalently bonded atoms
ductility
ability of a substance ti be drawn, pulled or extruded through a small opening to produce wire
malleability
the ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into thin sheets
metallic bonding
chemical bonding that results from the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of electrons