40 terms

Pre-AP Biology Cell Division

Cell Division and Cancer
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Chromosome
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
Haploid Cell
A cell that has only one representative of each chromosome pair
Diploid Cell
A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
Mitotis Interphase
a period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and prepares for cell division.
Mitosis Prophase
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
Mitosis Metaphase
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
Mitosis Anaphase
the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
Mitosis Telophase
last phase of mitosis, chromosome are in two new cells and nuclear membranes start to reform
Mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
Meiosis
type of cell division that produces four cells, each with half as many chromosomes as the parent cell
Prophase I
The first phase of meiosis I. During prophase I the replicated chromosomes condense, homologous chromosomes pair up, crossing over occurs between homologous chromosomes, the spindle is formed, and the nuclear envelope breaks apart into vesicles.
Metaphase I
The second phase of meiosis I. During metaphase I the paired homologous chromosomes (tetrads) align at the center of the cell
Anaphase I
The third phase of meiosis I. the replicated homologous chromosomes are separated (the tetrad is split) and pulled to opposite sides of the cell.
Telophase I
The fourth of meiosis I. Telophase I is identical to mitotic telophase, except that the number of chromosomes is now reduced by half. After this phase the cell is considered to be haploid.
Prophase II
The first phase of meiosis II. Prophase II is identical to mitotic prophase, except that the number of chromosomes was reduced by half during meiosis I.
Metaphase II
The second phase of meiosis II. Metaphase II is identical to mitotic metaphase, except that the number of chromosomes was reduced by half during meiosis I.
Anaphase II
The third phase of meiosis II. During anaphase II the sister chromatids are finally separated at their centromeres and puled to opposite sides of the cell.
Telophase II
The fourth and final phase of meiosis II. Telophase II is identical to mitotic telophase, except that the number of chromosomes was reduced by half during meiosis I.
Cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm during cell division
Chromatid
one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
Chromatin
long strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus; condense to form chromosomes
Centromere
area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
Centriole
structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
Homologous Chromosome
one of a matching pair of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent
Benign Tumor
a tumor that is not cancerous
Malignant Tumor
mass of abnormal cells resulting from uncontrolled cancer cell division
Cancer
uncontrolled cell division
Zygote
fertilized egg
Bivalent
one strand of a double-stranded chromosome
gamete
Mitosis occurs in all but these cells
Skin, Bone Cells
example of Diploid Cells in your body
Sperm and Egg
Example of haploid cells in your body
Crossing Over
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their DNA during meiosis
Tetrad
Where the homologous chromosomes pair up.
Genetic Recombination
new combination of genetic information in a gamete as a result of crossing over during prophase I of meiosis
G1 Phase
stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs its normal functions
S Phase
DNA replication
G2 Phase
Stage of interphase in which the cell prepares for division.
Cell Cycle
series of events that cells go through from "birth" to reproduction.
Independent Assortment
Chromosomes randomly move to opposite poles of the cell.
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