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A.H. Semester 1 Exam
Terms in this set (44)
What/who influenced the ideas found in the Declaration of Independence?
-The Enlightenment philosophers/thinkers
-The social contract theory
What were the Enlightenment influences on the Declaration of Independence?
-Citizens have a right to revolt against their government if that government abuses its citizen's rights
-People have certain rights that were given to them by their creator
What are the "unalienable rights?"
-Pursuit of Happiness
What were the democratic ideas found in the Northwest Ordinance?
-Equality of states
-Slavery was abolished
-Voting rights for adult males who owned 50 acres of land
-A portion of land was sold to pay for public education
What precedents did the Northwest Ordinance set for the future of the United States?
-It established a plan for admitting new states into the Union
-It established a mechanism for funding education in the future
How did the Enlightenment idea of popular sovereignty describe the ideal political system?
A government in which people choose their representatives
Be familiar with the problems the U.S. government faced under the Articles of Confederation and how they were addressed in the new Constitution.
See the table on page 2 of the "Content Statement 7 Reading"
What were the Enlightenment ideas found in the U.S. Constitution?
-The real power in government lies with the people. The authority of government comes from its citizens.
-Freedom of religion
-Accused people have rights
Those favoring ratification of the new U.S. Constitution
Opponents of the new U.S. Constitution
What were the concerns of the Anti-Federalists?
-A strong central government might threaten the rights of the people
-The U.S. Constitution lacked a Bill of Rights
-They said the nation was too vast (large) to be governed by a single government
What is the Bill of Rights?
-The first 10 Amendments to the U.S. Constitution
-Guarantees basic rights/freedoms to American citizens
Why was the Bill of Rights added to the U.S. Constitution?
To win ratification of those who opposed the Constitution
What did the Bill of Rights do for the people?
Protect the liberties of the people from abuse from the government
Be familiar with the 10 Amendments included in the Bill of Rights.
See pages 3-5 of the Content Statement 9 Reading or the "Bill of Rights Graphic Organizer"
Be familiar with the "rights of the accused." (Amendments Four-Eight)
See pages 4-5 of the Content Statement 9 Reading or the "Bill of Rights Graphic Organizer
Where did many Americans move during industrial expansion?
Cities / urban areas
What were the effects of mechanization of farming?
-Increase in farm production
-Lower cost of farm products
What is a corporation?
The type of business that is chartered by a state, sells shares in itself to raise capital, and is recognized in law as a separate "person"
Name one labor organization that was formed in the United States in the late 1800s or early 1900s.
Knights of Labor / American Railway Union / American Federation of Labor / Industrial Workers of the World
Why were many union leaders opposed to immigration?
It took jobs away from Americans
What did the American Federation of Labor want for its members?
Higher pay, 8-hour workday, better working conditions, improved job security
How did the federal government feel about labor unions? (Did the government support the businesses or the unions?)
The federal government supported business efforts to limit union power
What did immigrants provide for the U.S. economy?
Unskilled factory workers
How did many African Americans respond to the post-Reconstruction conditions in the U.S. South?
They moved to northern cities (The Great Migration)
What policy did the federal government follow in regard to Native Americans in an effort to resolve conflict with settlers moving west in the 1870s?
They were forced to live on government reservations further West
What was a primary reason for the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment?
To guarantee citizenship to the newly freed slaves'
What were Jim Crow Laws?
The name given to laws that made it illegal in the Southern states for African Americans to hold public office, travel freely, or to serve on a jury
What led to racial segregation and discrimination becoming institutionalized in the South in the Post-Reconstruction era?
The passage of the Jim Crow laws
How Jim Crow Laws and the decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson similar?
Both were designed to limit African American rights and liberties in the South
Why did American cities experience a dramatic change in the size of their populations in the late 1800s and early 1900s?
There was a shift in population from rural areas to cities, in pursuit of job opportunities
What is granted in the Nineteenth Amendment?
The right to vote for women
Why were direct party primaries, the secret ballot, and the use of referendum and recall introduced during the Progressive Era?
To increase citizen participation in government
Why were the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act created by Congress?
To protect consumers against unsafe products
Name two reforms the Progressives introduced to correct a problem associated with industrialized capitalism:
Clayton Antitrust Act
Federal Trade Commission Act
What problems were addressed by the following Progressive reforms? (complete table)
Use of a secret ballot
Voters were often subject to pressure and intimidation when they voted
Initiative, referendum, recall
Corruption existed in many state and local governments
Pure Food and Drug Act
Unsafe practices were used in the preparation and production of foods and medicines
Use of direct party primaries
Candidates were selected by political bosses who asked for favors when elected
Enactment of the Pendleton Act
Government jobs were used as a reward to people who contributed to politicians
What encouraged Congress to declare war on Spain?
The sinking of the U.S.S. Maine (blamed on the Spanish by the newspapers)
How did the Spanish-American War signify a turning point in American foreign policy?
The United States emerged as a world power
Which event most influenced President Wilson to enter World War I?
The renewal of unrestricted warfare by Germany
How did the participation of the United States in World War I contribute to the victory of the Allies and the United States becoming a world power?
The ability to influence the war's outcome by fielding over a million soldiers
What was the League of Nations?
The international peace organization envisioned by President Wilson as a way to mediate disputes and act with other nations against aggressor nations
What did the League of Nations, the Washington Naval Conference, and the Kellogg-Briand Pact have in common?
They were designed attempts to keep world peace
Why did isolationists in the U.S. Senate oppose American membership in the League of Nations?
They did not want involvement in future wars
How did the U.S. demonstrate its return to isolationism after World War I?
By refusing to approve the Treaty of Versailles, refusing to join the League of Nations, creating higher tariffs and immigration restrictions for Europeans, many Americans became pacifists
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