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autonomous regions

provinces that have been granted a certain degree of political and cultural autonomy, or freedom from centralized authority by the government


60 million in China. Mid-level (communist) party officials/members


a cultural orientation in which interdependence, cooperation, and social harmony take priority over personal goals


control maintained through this system, all Chinese citizens have a lifetime affiliation with a specific industrial, agricultural, or bureaucratic nit that dictated all aspects of their lives, including housing, health care, and other social benefits.


the spread of power away from the center to local branches or governments

democratic centralism

a form of democracy in which the interests of the masses were discovered through discussion within the Communist party, and then decisions were made under central leadership to serve those interests

dual role

vertical supervision of the next higher level of government and horizontal supervision of the communist party at the same level


the doctrine of the equality of mankind and the desirability of political and economic and social equality


The cycle of tightening up and then loosening restrictions that characterizes Chinese politics.

floating population

China's 150 million moving peasants who left the countryside to find urban employment. They have no danwei affiliation.

Four Modernizations

Deng Xiaoping's plan to change China after the disaster of Cultural Revolution. Improve- agriculture, science/technology, defense and industry

free market socialism

socialist market economy with chinese characteristics is the official title of the economic system since the reforms of deng xiaoping and consists of a mixture of state-owned enterprises with an open-market economy


a Chinese term meaning "connections" or "relationships" and describes personal ties between individuals based on such things as common birthplace or mutual acquaintances; important factor in China's political and economic life.

Great Leap Forward

Started by Mao Zedong, combined collective farms into People's Communes, failed because there was no incentive to work harder, ended after 2 years

Han Chinese

the people that historically formed the basis of China's identity, first as an empire and then as a country


the domination of one state over its allies

household responsibility system

the system put into practice in China beginning in the early 1980s in which the major decisions about agricultural production are made by individual farm families based on the profit motive rather than by a people's commune or the government

iron rice bowl

a feature of China's socialist economy that provided guarantees of lifetime employment, income, and basic cradle-to-grave benefits to most urban and rural workers. Economic reforms beginning in the 1980s that aimed at improving efficiency and work motivation sought to mash the iron rice bowl and link employment and income more directly to individual effort.

The Long March

mao zedong and 100,000 of his followers marched away from the Guomundang (national party)...this was a great victory for communists in china.

mandate of heaven

A political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source

mass line

Economic policy of Mao Zedong; led to formation of agricultural cooperatives in 1955; cooperatives became farming collectives in 1956.

"a new socialist countryside"

wen jiabao's pledge to narrow the rich-poor gap and to channel more wealth to the villagers and rural migrant workers of china


the system of patronage in Communist countries

Non-governmental organizations

international organizations that operate outside of the formal political arena but that that are nevertheless influential in spearheading international initiatives on social economic and environmental issues

"one country, two systems"

China's policy of blending capitalism and some Western freedoms with Chinese communism.

parallel hierarchies

Structure of the People's Republic of China with the Communist Party, the state or government, and the People's Liberation Army.


meetings of the Central Committee

Politburo/Standing Committee

top political leadership of China, "elected" by Politburo

"private business"

urban co-ops, service organizations, and rural industries that largely operate as capitalist interprises


Independence: the capacity to rely on one's own capabilities, and to manage one's own affairs.

socialist market economy

market economy that combines substantial state ownership of large industries with private enterprise, where both forms of ownership operate in a free-pricing market environment

Special Economic Zones

In 1979, the Chinese government set up these zones on the coast near Macao, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Improved transportation, lower taxes, and other incentives attracted investments from foreign businesses. They helped stimulate innovation and helped China grow economically.

state corporatism

a political system in which the state requires all members of a particular economic sector to join an officially designated interest group, with the result that the state gains substantial control over interest groups and interest groups channel or control their members' political and economic advocacy


highly-educated bureaucrats who make decisions based on their perceptions of technical issues rather than political ones

township and village enterprises

fastest growing sector of the Chinese economy and the backbone of economic strength in the countryside; rural factories and businesses that vary greatly in size and are run by local governments and private entrepreneurs; make their own decisions and are responsible for their profits and losses; slowed migration of peasants to the cities

Youth League

a youth movement of the People's Republic of China for youth between the ages of fourteen and twenty-eight, run by Communist Party of China. The league is organized on the party pattern.

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