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Knox Chapter Eight p. 245-254
Terms in this set (64)
What is humankind's basic economic concern?
producing or securing sufficient food resources to meet daily energy requirements and normal nutritional needs
Around what percentage of the world depends on primary activities for their livelihood?
What has the FAO determined to be the minimum daily requirement for caloric intake?
2350 per person
Among other reasons, inequalities in incomes, lack of access to fertile soils, credit, and education, local climatic conditions and lack of transportation of reasons for widespread ___
What will inevitable remain a persistent international issue with an increasing world population?
concerns with individual states' food supplies
What is now practiced by at most a few thousand people worldwide, in isolated pockets within the low latitude?
hunting and gathering
What is meant by low latitudes?
parts of the earth's surface near the equator
The science and practice of farming, including the cultivation of the soil and the rearing of livestock.
What two countries have huge sections with less than a 1000 day growing season?
Russia and Canada
In 2010, what percent of the world's economically active population worked in agriculture?
What can we say in general about the percent of total employment in agriculture?
it is steadily declining
What region in the world has the most countries with a high percentage involved in agriculture?
Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia
What type of economic system involves nearly total self-sufficiency on the part of its members?
A crop or livestock system in a subsistence economy characterized by low inputs of labor and capital, and low value, per unit area of land
extensive subsistence agriculture
A crop or livestock system in a subsistence economy characterized by high inputs of labor and/or capital
intensive subsistence agriculture
Migratory but controlled movement of livestock solely dependent on natural forage. A type of extensive subsistence agriculture.
What type of agriculture is found over large portions of semiarid and desert areas of Asia?
extensive subsistence agriculture
What are the most commonly used animals in nomadic herding?
sheep, goats, and camels
Whatever the animals involved in nomadic herding, their common characteristics are hardiness, mobility, and an ability to subsist on ___ ___
Besides food, clothing, and shelter, what other product do animals involved in nomadic herding provide?
milk, cheese, blood, and fuel
Seasonal movement of livestock:
What two things in the modern world are at odds with the nomadic way of life?
its imperatives of controlled international borders and private land ownership
Where do the Lapps or Saami people live?
What is the region on the margin of the Sahara called?
the Sahel region of Africa
In hot, wet climates, organic matter rapidly ___ and heavy rains ___ the nutrients from the soil
What type of agriculture rotate their fields to maintain soil productivity
An English localism for "burned clearing":
What is slash and burn agriculture officially called?
Crop production on tropical forest clearings kept in cultivation until their quickly declining fertility is lost. Cleared plots are then abandoned and new sites are prepared. A type of extensive subsistence agriculture.
Shifting cultivation is practiced in Middle and South America, Central and Western Africa, and ___
Brazil's Amazon Basin and Central America
The production of many different type of crops in a single field:
Why is polyculture used?
reduces vulnerability to pests and diseases, spreads the harvests through the year to provide food security, and keeps the soil covered by vegetation
The view that population growth independently forces a conversion from extensive to intensive subsistence agriculture
Who's idea was it that the supply of food is fixed or only slowly expandable?
What is the problem with the term intensive subsistence?
no longer fully applicable to changing practices in which subsistence and commercial agriculture are increasingly combined
What type of farmers are concentrated in major river valleys?
intensive subsistence farmers
In what parts of Asia is wheat grown intensively?
cooler and drier portions of Asia
What type of subsistence farming is characterized by large inputs of labor per unit of land?
intensive subsistence farming
Where is the picture on p. 250 taken?
Is urban agriculture growing or shrinking?
On what continent is urban agriculture most prevalent?
What are some negative consequences of urban agriculture in LDCs?
use of untreated human waste as fertilizer
What are two apparent paths to promoting increased food production?
1. expand the land area under cultivation
2. increase crop yield from existing farmlands
Approximately ___ of the world's land area is agriculturally unsuitable
In what ways are millions of hectares of farmland being lost?
soil erosion, salinization, desertification, and the conversion of farmland to urban, industrial, and transportation uses in all developed and developing countries
What is the problem with the soils of tropical forests?
fragile, low in nutrients, have poor water retention, and are easily eroded or destroyed following deforestation
What has been key to increased agricultural production over the past few decades?
increased productivity of existing crop land rather than expansion of cultivated area
A series of agricultural technology transfers during the 1940s-70s from the U.S. to subtropical areas of underdeveloped and developing countries, accomplished through the introduction of very high-yielding hybrid grain crops
What did Norman Borlaug develop?
dwarf, high-yielding wheat variety
What did the International Rice Institute in the Philippines develop?
dwarf rice strains that yielded many more grains per plant
How many lives is it estimated were saved from starvation because of the Green Revolution?
one billion people
What is the danger of monoculture
loss of traditional and subsistence agriculture
Who was often displaced because of the Green Revolution
What 3 crops were most improvements made in the Green Revolution?
wheat, rice, corn
Where did the Green Revolution have little impact?
What is GM food?
genetically modified food
What are the 4 principal GM crops?
soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola
What have the monocultures of the Green Revolution reduced?
plant genetic diversity
What 3 grains provide 60% of the world's calories?
rice, wheat, and corn
Do women or men grow more food in the world?
On what continent are there many countries where the women grow up to 80% of the food?
Why is women's agriculture in developing states increasing?
male family members leave for cities in search of paid urban work
Why have less women had access to Green Revolution technology?
women have less access than men to credit at bank or government-subsidized rates
Summarize the last paragraph in: Women and the Green revolution
To enable women's benefits of the Green Revolution, gender equality in ownership of the land and labor must be achieved
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