Chapter 10 - Cell Growth & Division
Honors Biology - Searfoss
Terms in this set (58)
What are some of the difficulties a cell faces as it increases in size?
The larger a cell becomes, the more demands the cell places on its DNA.
Why is it a good idea for cells to divide once they get too big?
larger cells are less efficient in moving nutrients and waste materials across its cell membrane.
As the length of the sides of a cube increases, its volume...
increases faster than its surface area, decreasing the ratio of surface area to volume.
the process in which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
reproduction involving a single parent that results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
reproduction in which cells from two parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism
threadlike structure within the nucleus that contains genetic information that is passed on from one generation to the next.
substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histones
Beadlike structures that form when DNA tightly coils around histone proteins
Why are chromosomes important in cell division?
They make it possible to separate DNA precisely during cell division.
How many chromosomes are in human haploid cells?
How many chromosomes are in human diploid cells?
series of events in which a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells`
What are the main events of the cell cycle?
A cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells.
period of the cell cycle between cell division in which the cell grows. Known as the "in-between" period
What are the four phases of interphase?
G1, S, G2, and M
What happens during the G1 phase?
cells do most of their growing. They increase in size and synthesize new proteins
What happens during the S phase?
DNA is synthesized when the chromosomes are replicated. The cell contains twice as much DNA as it did at the beginning.
What happens during the G2 phase?
many of the organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced
What happens during the M phase?
The cells divide to produce two daughter cells. M stands for mitosis
part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells
What are the four phases of mitosis in order?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase
when the genetic material inside the nucleus condense and the duplicated chromosomes become visible. Outside the nucleus, a spindle starts to form. The nuclear membrane starts to break down and the nucleolus disappears.
Region of a chromosome where the two sister chromatids attach?
one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
During this phase, the centromeres of the duplicated chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Spindle fibers connect the centromere of each chromosome to the two poles of the spindle.
During this phase, the chromosomes separate and move along spindle fibers to opposite ends of the cell
During this phase, the chromosomes, which were distinctive and condensed, begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin. A nuclear envelope reforms, the spindle begins to break part, and a nucleolus becomes visible in each daughter nucleus
How do daughter cells split apart after mitosis?
Cytokinesis, which completes the process of cell division - it splits one cell into two by dividing the cytoplasm
How does cytokinesis differ in plant and animal cells?
In animal cells, the cell membrane pinches inward until the cytoplasm is pinched into two nearly equal parts. In plant cells, a cell plate forms halfway between the divided nucleus.
How is the cell cycle regulated?
the cell cycle is controlled by regulatory proteins both inside and outside the cell
one of a family of proteins that regulates the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
proteins that allow the cell cycle to proceed only when certain events have occurred in the cell itself.
Proteins that respond to events outside the cell. They direct cells to speed up or slow down the cell cycle.
One of a group of external regulatory proteins that stimulate the growth and division of cells. Especially important during embryonic development and wound healing.
The process of programmed cell death
disorder in which some of the body's cells lose the ability to control growth.
How do cancer cells differ from other cells?
cancer cells do not respond to the signals that regulate the growth of most cells and the cells divide uncontrollably.
A mass of rapidly dividing cells that can damage surrounding tissue
What is the difference between benign and malignant tumors?
Benign tumors are noncancerous, and malignant tumors invade and destroy surrounding healthy tissue.
What causes cancer?
Defects in the genes that regulate cell growth and division. Some sources of these defects are: smoking, chewing tobacco, radiation exposure, viral infection, etc.
What are some treatments for cancer?
It can often be removed by surgery, carefully targeted with beams of radiation.
the use of compounds that would kill cancer cells, or at least slow their growth.
developing stage of a multicellular organism from which the adult organism is gradually produced
How do cells become specialized for different functions?
during the development of an organism, cells differentiate into many types of cells.
Process in which cells become specialized in structure and function. Can be specialized tasks like: contraction, photosynthesis, or protection.
cells that are able to develop into any type of cell found in the body. Only the fertilized egg and the cells produced by the first few divisions of embryonic development are truly totipotent
stage of early development in mammals that consists of hollow ball of cells
cells that are capable of developing into most, but not all, of the body's cell types. Cannot form the tissues surrounding the embryo.
unspecialized cell that can give rise to one or more types of specialized cells
Embryonic Stem Cells
pluripotent cells found in the early embryo. These cells have the capacity to produce just about any cell type in the human body.
cell with limited potential to develop into many types of differentiated cells
Adult Stem Cells
groups of cell that differentiate to renew and replace cell in the adult body
What are some possible benefits and issues associated with stem cell research?
Stem cells offer the potential benefit of using undifferentiated cells to repair or replace badly damaged cells and tissues. However, they raise a lot of ethical issues.
Harvesting embryonic stem cells...
cause the destruction of an embryo
Why is human embryonic stem cell research controversial?
Because the arguments for it and against it both involve ethical issues of life and death. Individuals who regard the embryo as entitled to the rights and protections of any human being object to such work.