150 terms

2017 Earth Science Semester 1 Exam Review Set

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geosphere
The solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and upper mantle.
atmosphere
An envolope of gases surrounding the earth or another planet.
hydrosphere
All the water at and near the surface of the earth, 97% of which is in oceans
biosphere
Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere.
biogeochemical cycle
The flow of chemical elements and compounds between living organisms and the physical environment.
cycle
A series of events that happen over and over again.
3 main layers of Earth
Crust, Mantle, Core
listhosphere
the crust and rigid upper mantle.
plastic upper mantle
the portion of the mantle lying between 40 and 700 miles below the surface where convection is known to move the lithospheric plates
core
The spherical center of the earth which includes solid inner core and liquid outer core.
convection
the movement of molecules in a fluid in a circular pattern, transporting both energy and matter of the fluid
tectonic theory
the idea that the lithosphere is broken up into plates that move over the surface of the earth.
diameter of Earth (miles)
8,000 miles
circumference of Earth (miles)
24,000 miles
speed of rotation of Earth at equator (miles per hour)
1,000 miles an hour
time required for Earth to rotate on axis (hours)
24 hours
mass of Earth (Kg)
6 x 10²⁴ kg
main composition of Earth's crust
silicate rocks (~75% silicate)
(OSiAlFeCalNaKMg)
estimated 0.5% of total Earth Mass
main composition of Earth's mantle
silicate magmas (~46% silicate) rich in magnesium and iron
estimated 67% of total Earth Mass
main composition of Earth's core
suspected as mostly iron and some nickel
estimated 32% of total Earth Mass
time required for Earth to orbit the Sun (days)
365 1/4 days
age of the Earth
4.6 billion years old
diameter of the Sun (miles)
800,000 miles
diameter of Sun - compared to Earth
110 x larger
mass of Sun - compared to Earth
300,000x greater
volume of Sun - compared to Earth
1.3 million times greater
time required for Sun to rotate on axis (at equator)
27 days
diameter of the Moon (miles)
2000 miles
diameter of Moon - compared to Earth
4 x less
mass of Moon - compared to Earth
80 x less
time required for Moon to orbit Earth with respect to fixed stars (sidereal orbit)
27.3 days
time required for Moon to rotate on axis
27.3 days
time required for Moon to appear in same position in sky relative to the Sun - moon phases (synodic orbit)
29.5 days
approximate distance form Earth to Sun (miles and Km)
93 million miles or 150 million km
approximate distance from Earth to Moon (miles)
250 thousand miles
Oceanic plate
Tectonic plates forming the ocean basin. Made of basalt and are thinner and more dense than continents
Continental Plates
Tectonic plates forming continents. Made of granite and are thicker and lighter than oceanic plates.
electromagnetic energy
A form of energy that travels through space as waves from the sun. Causes unequal heating of the Earth
Gravitational energy
Gravitational energy is the potential energy associated with the gravitational field.
zenith
point directly over an observer's head
season
divisions of the year, marked by changes in sunlight and precipitation
insolation
radiation that comes from the sun
equinox
the time or date (twice each year) at which the sun crosses the celestial equator, when day and night are of equal length (about September 22 and March 20).
formula for density
D=M/V
oblate spheroid
slightly flattened at the poles and bulges at the equator
Radioactive elements
gives off a steady amount of radiation as it slowly changes to a nonradioactive element
elements
A molecule composed of one kind of atom; cannot be broken into simpler units by chemical reactions.
Uniformitarianism
A principle that geologic processes that occurred in the past can be explained by current geologic processes
Law of Superposition
The geologic principle that states that in horizontal layers of sedimentary rock, each layer is older than the layer above it and younger than the layer below it.
rock forming mineral
One of the common minerals that make up most of the rocks of Earth's crust.
granite
A usually light-colored igneious rock that is found in continental crust.
basalt
A dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture, found in oceanic crust.
grains
The particles of mineral or other rocks that give a rock its texture.
texture
The look and feel of a rock's surface, determined by size, shape, and pattern of a rock's grain.
igneous rock
A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface.
sedimentary rock
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together.
metamorphic rock
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reaction.
extrusive rock
igneous rock that froms from lava on Earth surface.
intrusive rock
Igneous rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface.
sediment
Small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or organisms.
erosion
The destructive process in which water or wind loosens and carries away fragments of rock.
deposition
The process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind that is carrying it.
compaction
The process by which sediments ae pressed together under their own weight.
cementation
The process by which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together into one mass.
clastic rock
Sedimentary rock that forms when rock fragments are squeezed together under high pressure.
organic rock
Sedimentary rock that forms from remains of organisms deposited in thick layers.
chemical rock
Sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize from a solution.
foliated
Term used to describe metamorphic rocks that have grains arranged in parallel layers or bands.
main characteristics geologists use to identify rocks
color, texture, hardness, & mineral composition
Rock with high silica content and large crystal size, light in color, and forms continental crust
Granite
Rock with low silica content, small crystal size, dark in color, and forms oceanic crust
Basalt
3 main groups of rocks
sedimentary, metaphorphic,& igneous
Two main characteristics used to classify igneous rocks
texture and mineral composition
low silica
dark in color
high silica
light in color
Which igneous rock most often used for building material?
Granite
order of formation of sedimentary rock
1. erosion 2. deposition 3. compaction 4. cementation
3 major types of sedimentary rock
clastic, organic, chemical
2 types of sedimentary rock that forms from living organisms
Coal and Limestone
How is organic limestone formed?
is a type of rock that is made up of bits of animal shells. Over millions of years these shells collected on the ocean floor. As layers of shells and mud built up, the lower layers slowly hardened into limestone.
Evaporation
process that causes deposits of chemical sedimentary rocks like micrite and rock salt to form
4 examples of clastic rock
breccia, shale, sand stone, conglomerate
uses for sedimentary rock
cement, salt, chalk, paints, fuel, building materials
What processes cause the formation of metamorphic rocks?
Heat, Pressure and Chemical fluids
How do geologists classify metamorphic rocks?
by the arrangements of the grains that make up the rocks (foliated or nonfoliated) and parent material
How are metamorphic rocks used?
building materials and sculptures (marble)
Metamorphic rocks that have their grains arranged in parallel layers or ands are said to be ____________.
foliated
Examples of foliated metamorphic rocks
slate (most common), schist and gneiss
Examples of nonfoliated metamorphic rocks
marble and quartzite - they do not split into layers.
Granite (igneous) + heat and pressure = this metamoprhic rock
Gneiss (metamorphic, folicated)
Sandstone (sedimentary) + heat and pressure = this metamorphic rock
Quartzite (metamorphic, nonfoliated)
Shale (sedimentary) + heat and pressure = this metamorphic rock
Slate (metamorphic, foliated)
The Rock Cycle
the processes by which, over many years, Earth's materials form and change back and forth among igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, and metamorphic rocks
Define a Mineral
naturally occuring inorganic solid with definite chemical composition and crystalline structure
Elements in highest abundance in the crust by mass
O SiAl FeCal NaKMg
Oxygen 47% Silicon 28% (these two account for ~75% of the crust by mass)
Aluminum Iron Calcium Sodium Potassium Magnesium
Three types of bonds that hold atoms in minerals
Covalent, Ionic and Metallic
Five locations minerals can form
1. Water at Surface of Earth
--- evaporites: water evaporates, minerals remain
--- precipitates: minerals precipitate from water
2. Hydrothermal Deposits (veins)
--- precipitates: minerals precipitate from water
3. Cooling Magma (igneous)
4. Metamorphic Rock (metamorphism)
5. The Mantle (great depth, temp and pressure)
How do minerals form from magma ?
Minerals form as atoms bond together when molten magma cools
--- slow cooling underground = large crystals
--- fast cooling at surface = microscopic crystals
How do minerals form from hot water solutions ?
Step 1: Water below Earth's surface is heated by magma and dissolves existing minerals
Step 2: While the water cools atoms or compounds leave the solution and crystallize (precipitate) as minerals
Example of 3 minerals formed when water evaporates (called evaporites)
gypsum (CaSO4), calcite (CaCO3), halite (NaCl)
What are mineral veins?
Narrow channels of pure mineral (often metal) that are different than the surrounding rock
What minerals are formed deep in the mantle?
Diamond and Olivine (peridot)
Crystal Shapes to Know
Ranking of Crystal Symmetry
Crystal Shape
The outward 3-D shape of a mineral specimen that reflects the internal atomic structure
Mineral
naturally occruing inorganic solid with definite chemical composition and crystalline structure
Atoms in highest abundance in the Crust by mass
OSiAl FeCal NaKMg
Oxygen 47% & Silicon 28%
Aluminum Iron Calcium Sodium Potassium Magnesium
Three types of Bonds that hold atoms in Minerals
Covalent, Ionic Metallic
Calcite
"+" acid test
perfect cleavage in 3 directions @ 75°
Hematite
gray metal or brown color
red brown streak
Olivine
olive green color
glassy luster, hardness 6.5
Sulfur
yellow color
sulfurous odor
Halite
cubic crystal
salty taste
dissolves in water
Biotite
one directional cleavage
can be thin as paper
dark color
Quartz
hardness of 7
hexagonal crystal
Feldspar
most abundant mineral family on Earth
pink, white, gray or brown, hardness 6, 2 directional cleavage
Galena
metallic gray luster
cubic crystal
specific gravity ~10
Pyrite
Brass yellow, metallic luster, cubic crystals
fools gold
Amethyst
6-sided prism ending in 6-sided pyramid with glassy purple color
hardness 7
Magnetite
black or gray with brownish tint
metallic luster and magnetic
Gypsum
pearly luster
scratched by fingernail
Graphite
marks paper
Classification based on Chemical Composition
Slicate, Carbonate, Sulfate, Halide, Oxide and Sulfide, Element
Silicates (SiO₂) are the most abundant
Classification based on Use
Industrial, Ore, and Gem
Industrial Mineral
A naturally occurring rock or mineral that can be used "as-is" for manufacturing or chemical production
gypsum, halite, limestone, and talc are examples
Ore
-a rock or mineral from which a valuable constituent, especially a metal, can be profitably mined or extracted
Gemstone
A durable and lustrous mineral cut and polished for use as an ornament or jewelry
-used for jewelry, decoration, grinding and polishing
What are some examples of metals and how are they used?
ex: aluminum, iron, copper, silver
-can be stretched into wire
-flattened into sheets
-hammered without breaking
Five locations minerals can form?
Water near Earth's surface
Hydrothermal Deposits
Cooling Magma
Metamorphic Rock
The Mantle
How do minerals form from magma?
-Minerals form as hot magma cools
-Slow cooling underground = large crystals
-Fast cooling at surface = microscopic crystals
How do minerals form from hot water solutions?
-Water below the earth has been heated by magma
-The hot water causes the minerals to dissolve into solutions
-When the solution cools, the elements or compounds leave the solution and crystallize as minerals
What are some examples of minerals formed by evaporation?
gypsum (CaSO4), calcite (CaCO3), halite (NaCl)
What are veins?
narrow channels of pure mineral (often metal) that are different than the surrounding rock
What minerals are from the mantle?
Diamond and Olivine (peridot)
Common Tests for Mineral Identification
Color
Luster
Crystal Shape
Streak
Acid test
Fracture
Cleavage
Hardness
Specific gravity
Color
-Often is the first quality seen in a mineral
-Least useful property of a mineral
-Most easily observed
-Can use to ID a few minerals
Luster
-The way a mineral reflects light
-Either metallic or nonmetallic
ex: metallic = mineral shines like a metal (pyrite)
ex: Nonmetallic = doesn't shine like metal (diamond)
Crystal
-Crystals are geometric solids which contain smooth surfaces
-Exhibits good cleavage
-If allowed enough room minerals often show crystal shape
-ex: Cubic
-ex: Hexagonal
-ex: Triclinic
Magnetism
-Ability of strong magnet to be attracted to a mineral
Fluorescence
-Ability of a mineral to emit visible light when exposed to ultraviolet light (black light)
Streak
- Color of a powdered mineral
- Usually minerals are rubbed against unglazed white porcelain tile to get the powder
Fracture
- Describes the appearance of a broken surface
- can be uneven, irregular grainy fracture, or curving.
Cleavage
- The tendency of a mineral to break in smooth flat planes
- Cleavage is a very important property for identification
Acid Test
-Test that helps identify minerals containing calcium carbonate

-When acid is applied to certain minerals (carbonates) and fizzes, it gives off bubbles of carbon dioxide.
Hardness
-Ability to resist scratching
-Use Mohs Scale of Hardness to test (1=soft 10=hard)
-Can test with fingernail (2.5) copper (3) glass (5.5)
Crystal Shapes to Know
Symetric Crystals
cubic, tetragon, rhombohedron, hexagon, orthorhombic, monoclinic
Asymetric Crystals
triclinic
Ranking of Crystal Symmetry
Specifc Gravity
Physical property that compares the mass of a mineral to the mass of an equal volume of water
(tells us how many times heavier than water)
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