25 terms

Miller & Levine Biology - Chapter 13

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polypeptide
long chain of amino acids that makes proteins
genetic code
The information encoded within the genetic material that can be translated into a protein
codon
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
translation
Process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced
anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
uracil
In RNA molecules, adenine is complementary to adenine.
RNA
A type of nucleic acid containing the sugar ribose. Used in protein synthesis.
messenger RNA
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
ribosomal RNA
type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes
transfer RNA
type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
transcription
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
RNA polymerase
Enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription
mutation
A rare change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity.
point mutation
Gene mutation involving changes in one or a few nucleotides.
frameshift mutuation
Mutation that shifts the reading frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
mutagen
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
polyploidy
condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
operon
A segment of DNA containing adjacent genes including structural genes and an operator gene and a regulatory gene
operator
Region of DNA that controls RNA polymerase's access to a set of genes with related functions.
RNA interference
introduction of double-stranded RNA into a cell to inhibit gene expression
homeotic gene
Genes that determine basic features of where a body part is.
homeobox gene
genes that code for transcription factors that activate other genes that are important in cell development and differentiation
hox gene
series of genes that controls the differentiation of cells and tissues in an embryo
protein
An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
What are the four bases of RNA
adenine - uracil : cytosine - guanine
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