AP English Exam #1
Terms in this set (79)
establishing credibility - "I have the honor of serving as president of the Southern Christian Leadership conference, an organization operating in every southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia."
emotional appeal - writers mat appeal to fear, anger, or joy to sway their readers. They may also add climax or excitement. The technique is strongly connected to the essay's mood.
logical appeal - "texting while driving increases the risk of accident 23.2 times over unimpaired driving."
takes evidence, or a specific case or example, and then draws generalizations or conclusions from it. Thus, it generalizes a conclusion based on probabilities/ likelihoods
reasoning begins with a generalization and then applies it to a specific case. unlike induction, deductive arguments provide absolute support for a conclusion. Makes a strong assertion that the conclusion must follow the premises, because they are generally accepted. Denying the conclusion means that at least on of the premises is flawed.
a simple form of deductive reasoning, yet one of the most powerful types of logical arguments. Always includes a major premise (typically relating to a group); a minor premise (relating to a singular); and a conclusion implied by the previous two premises.
there are several fallacies in inductive reasoning that, if understood, can be identified and disposed of properly. The signal poor rhetorical skills and a lack of intellectual rigor.
repeating an element so that readers will remember the message and take action as suggested. Overly repetitive writing can become tiresome. However, when used sparingly for effect, it can reinforce the writer's message and/or entertain the reader. Writers may repeat a word, a phrase or an entire sentence of emphasis
appeal to authority
cite prominent figures to support a position, idea, argument, or course of action - "But though I was initially disappointed at being categorized as an extremist, as I continued to think about the matter I gradually gained a measure of satisfaction from the label. Was not Jesus an extremist for love."
call to action
tells reader/ audience to do something - "Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country!"
addressing the counter viewpoints
you can refuse opposing arguments by showing that they are unsound, unfair, weak. Frequently, you will present evidence to show the weakness of your opponent's points and to reinforce your own case.
Sometimes a writer will ask a question a to which no answer is required. The writer implies that the answer is obvious; the reader has no choice but to agree with the writes point.
Inclusive language such as 'we', 'our', 'us', and exclusive language such as 'them' can persuade by including the reader, or by creating a sense of solidarity or a sense of responsibility. "Our land is being taken away from us; we must do something about it."
trying to convince viewers that something is good because "everyone" is buying it; encouraging people to "jump on the bandwagon"
someone will testify that their own experience was beneficial or positive, thus affirming the argument
acknowledging the opposing view point but countering it, showing how it is false or illogical
satire that is gentle, urbane, smiling; it aims to correct by gentle and broadly sympathetic laughter
satire that is biting, bitter, angry; it points with contempt and moral indignation to the corruption and evil of men and institutions
the target of the satire - the elements of the satirist's society or world which has bothered them into writing their work. the object of satire is usually some human frailty; people, institutions, ideas, and things are all fair game satirists
standard of truth and goodness - by which the object of attack is criticized, the satirist's true purpose or message
a figure of speech in which the actual intent is expressed in words which carry the opposite meaning
happens when an unexpected action occurs that is in direct contrast to what one would expect to happen.
a form of verbal irony, bitter expression. It is personal jeering, intended to hurt and is intended as a sneering taunt
an idea that is taken to its logical extreme (e.g., a baby dies from cleanliness)
making things logical or more improbable than they really are (e.g., caricature in political cartoons, "I'm so hungry I could eat a horse.")
saying less than is meant (litotes is an example of this: "he's no amateur" really means "he's a pro")
an imitation of the style of a particular writer, artist, or genre with deliberate exaggeration for comic effect. (e.g., Shrek mocks the stereotype of fairy tails, "Scary Movie" films parody horror films, parodies of music videos).
witty exploitation of the meanings of words (e.g., puns and limericks: What do you get when you cross a cow and a duck? MILK AND QUACKERS).
substitution of an inoffensive term for one considered offensively explicit or in other words, a nice way to talk about unpleasant things often by using particular words (e.g., kick the bucket = to die, fired = canned, laid off = let go)
the occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of closely connected words
a short, pointed statement that expresses a wise or clever observation about human experience
a short poem of songlike quality
seemingly true statement that leads to a contradiction
words that help readers see, hear, feel, taste, and smell the object of the author's description
Attributing animation to something inanimate; treating a thing or abstract quality as though it were a person
a figure of speech in which an author asks a question and the immediately provides an answer for the question
similar to synecdoche, but uses something more generally or loosely associated with a concept to stand in for it.
When Americans speak of the 'Oval Office', for example, they are really referring to the activity within it, the position or function of the President. It's a linked term.
The British refer similarly to the 'Crown', when they're really discussing the powers, authority and responsibilities of the monarchy, which is symbolized by the crown.
Repetition of something just said while adding more detail to the original description - Purpose: to add style to the phrase being amplified
The use of words whose pronunciation imitates the sound the word describes (e.g., blam, pow)
a general term that refers to how a writer influences an audience to adopt a belief or follow a course of action, appeals to pathos, logos, and ethos
has a formal structure, makes points, supplies evidence, logically reasons, refutes, and accommodates. It appeals to reason, otherwise known as logos
Potentially confusing words and phrases used in an occupation, trade, or field of study. We might speak of medical jargon, sports jargon, pedagogic jargon, police jargon, or military jargon
story telling for a purpose
natural sentence order
subject is written before the predicate
inverted sentence order
a part or all of the predicate comes before the subject
a clause that can stand alone as a sentence / is a complete thought
when normally unassociated words, phrases, or ideas are placed next to each other for effect
a group of words with a subject and a verb but does not express a thought, it is not a sentence and cannot stand alone
coordination conjunctions - FANBOYS
connect words, phrases, and clauses within a sentence.
FANBOYS - for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
a reference to a person, place, event, or quotation that the writer assumes readers will recognize (MLK enriches his argument by alluding to biblical passages and proverbs that he expects his audience of clergy to be familiar with)
the repetition of a word or sentence to create emphasis
explains something unfamiliar by comparing it to something familiar
use description to tell readers about physical characteristics of a person, place, or thing. Relies on the five senses
Deliberate combination of seemingly contradictory words (e.g., "the Great Depression", "Bittersweet")
parallelism (aka parallel structure)
When an author creates a "balanced" sentence by re-using the same word structure, this is called parallelism. Always strive for parallelism when using compound or complex sentences.
subject, occasion, audience, purpose, speaker, tone
using figures of speech to be more effective, persuasive, and impactful. Go beyond the literal meaning of words to make the reading draw connections
the choice and use of words and phrases in speech or writing
the arrangement of words and phrases to create well formed sentences in a language
subjective vs objective reporting
subjective reporting is taken from a personal experience while objective reporting is description that is factual and void of any emotion
connotation vs denotation
connotation is an idea or feeling that a word invokes in addition to its literal or primary meaning. Denotation is the literal or primary meaning of a word, in contrast to the feelings or ideas that the word suggests
words and phrases that have strong emotional implications and involve strongly positive or negative reactions beyond their literal meaning. For example, the phrase tax relief refers literally to changes that reduce the amount of tax citizens must pay.
passive vs active voice
Passive voice: where the subject of the sentence is neither a do-er or a be-er, but is acted upon by some other agent or by something unnamed, while the active voice is the person performing the action.
include sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste. Writers employ the five senses to engage a reader's interest.
It is a way of thinking (and writing) that stressed the importance of feelings, imagination, self-expression, and individual creativity.
A literary movement that says in determining the ultimate reality of God, the universe, the self and other important matters, one must transcend, or go beyond, everyday human experience in the physical world.
God actively and mysteriously involved in the working of universe.
the belief that humans can arrive at truth by using our reason rather than relying on the authority of the past, on religious faith, or on intuition.
When a writer arranges information according to how things fit together in physical space; i.e., where one thing exists in relation to another.
descriptions, examples, reasons, explanations and comparisons. Helps a writing have more clarity.
first person and third person POV
The perspective from which the story is being told.
First Person: This is when the narrator is referring to him or herself. You will see 'I,' 'me,' 'my' and 'mine' in first person.
Third Person: This is where the narrator doesn't refer to him or herself - as in first person - and isn't addressing the reader. Instead, you get an observer's perspective and lots of 'she,' 'he,' 'her,' 'his,' 'their' and 'theirs.'
a figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole or the whole for a part, the special for the general or the general for the special, as in "I need a good set of hands" what you really need is a person
a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance, as in "A mighty fortress is our God.".
a figure of speech in which two unlike things are explicitly compared, as in "she is like a rose."
Suggesting that because two things are alike in some way and one of those things is like something else, then both things must be like that "something else".
is when an author uses a metaphor throughout a long passage or even an entire poem. An author would use an extended metaphor to create a clearer comparison between the two items. It also allows the audience to visualize an idea more clearly and can make something that may be complex a little more simple.
Example: 'But Soft! What light through yonder window breaks? It is the East, and Juliet is the sun! Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon, Who is already sick and pale with grief.' In these lines, Romeo is comparing Juliet to the sun, and he continues to do so through several lines. He even says the moon is jealous of her brightness.
fragments vs run in sentences
Fragment: is just another term for 'incomplete sentence.' As the name indicates, it's merely a piece of a sentence that can't stand on its own.
Run on: or fused sentence, is a sentence that's missing the right punctuation to make it flow properly. A run-on occurs when what could be two complete sentences - that is, two independent clauses - are connected in one sentence without being punctuated. In other words, they're fused together instead of each clause being distinguished from the other. Here's an example of a run-on:
Clark had vanished he left his eyeglasses and coat in the telephone booth.
Semi colons - proper usage
1. To connect two independent clauses that are closely related to each other.
2. To connect transitional words and phrases within a sentence.
3. To keep items in a list that have internal punctuation separate
Cumulative vs Periodic Sentences
Cumulative: is an independent clause followed by a series of subordinate constructions (phrases or clauses) that gather details about a person, place, event, or idea.
Periodic: is a long and frequently involved sentence, marked by suspended syntax, in which the sense is not completed until the final word—often with an emphatic climax.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Cambridge Teaching Knowledge Test - TKT TEFL TESOL CELTA
RICHTER VOCAB QUIZ TERMS
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Chapter 7: Skeletal System
Bio 210 Chapter 5: Tissues
Bio 210 Body Organization Anatomical Position
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ser vs Estar and endings for Ser and Estar
Present perfect spanish