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Art History of the Earlier 20th century
Art History of the Earlier 20th century
Terms in this set (45)
Black Square, Kazimir Malevich, 1915; oil on canvas
- Hung in a corner in the 0.10 Exhibition (or the last Futurist exhibition); this was a statement that reflected on the history of religious paintings/icons being placed in a corner.
- In his essay "From Cubism to Futurism" Malevich describes futurism as copying things from our world where in suprematism artists create something does not exist;
*Suprematism- a new realism of painting that is anti-objective; like socialism, it rejected "things"
Taking in the Rye, Malevich, 1912 oil on canvas
-Forms are simplified and tubular referring to folk art.
- Subj. is the working class that he was a part of and he is exploring the plight of the peasant.
White on white, Malevich 1918 oil on canvas
- Anti-object composition because painting is a product of bourgeois society, he created art that "captured spirit." He created and taught in the First State Free Studios which was a school that opened in 1919.
Self-Portrait, Malevich, 1933, Oil on canvas
Background is a flat white square, the signature on bottom right is a square and there are triangles, retaining his previous art of geometric shapes. Hand gesture is a symbol of a right angle, a part of his identity of suprematism, and the robe references medieval times when the artist was less important than the art.
Still Life, Popova, 1907-1908, Oil on canvas
Carefully arranged objects
Painterly Architect Tonic, Popova, 1918, gouache and watercolor on paper
Geometric shapes with painterly colors to show a 3D space in an abstract painting. SHe was one of the few women artists to participate in the new experimental art of suprematism; because of socialist ideals, women were more accepted as equals in the art world.
Subject from a dryer's shop, Popova, 1914, Oil on canvas
Combination of geometry and representation.
Compare to modern Paris and her homeland.
The Magnanimous Cuckhold Popova, 1922 (Poster)
This is an image of the set made for Vsevolod Meyerhold's play, the Magnanimous Cuckhold. Popova wanted to focus on biomechanics (the human machine) and translate tasks from the aesthetic plane (world of beauty) to the productive plane (world of the machine).
Counter reliefs, Tatlin, 1915, metal rope & paint
Refers to tradition while rejecting it since it is placed in a corner and can be compred to Picasso's Guitar Construction of 1912. Work was known as "Russian Constructivism" (neither painting or sculpture, but something entirely new) and also called painterly reliefs ot selection of materials.
Monument to the Third International, Tatlin, 1919-1920
Described in Nikolai Punin's 1920 essay of the same name, it was meant to be over 1300 ft tall, contain symbolism of other monuments in history (such as the Eiffel Tower, and leaning tower of Piza) and be a monument to the International Communist Party, where socialism was to be an international mov't. It reflects ideas from both Tatlin's essay, where the individual artist is not glorified, and "Toward a Free Revolutionary Art" by Andre Breton, Diego Rivera and Leon Trotsky, where they explain why experimental art can be a part of communism.
Tableau #2, Mondrian, 1922, Oil on canvas
By using black and primary colors, he sought to achieve an equilibrium in art that was impossible in reality; in his neo-plasticism essay, Mondrian wrote that the purpose of art is to visualize the universal. An example of the De Stijl "The Style" movement led by Theo van Doesburg; it was explained in a publication De Stijl, where the old = individual and the new = universal and the basic building blocks of art were universal art.
Composition in brown and grey, Mondrian, 1913 oil on canvas
Taking Braque and Picasso's style of abstract forms. Kahnweiler-like edges.
Composition with color planes, Mondrian, 1917 oil on canvas
-squares floating in space and white = purity
Composition in Blue and White, Mondrian, 1935 oil on canvas
Taking balance to the extreme; asymmetrical, frame is white. Emphasis on geometry and simplicity
Broadway Boogie Woogie, Mondrian, 1942-43 oil on canvas
- Loss of black lines
- Title reflects real world
- refers to NYC and Jazz music
- new rectangles inside each other
- coming to NYC he met urban design with new energy, similar to flashing lights and movement
Victory Boogie Woogie, Mondrian, 1944
Died this year and left it unfinished. "Mondrian's Thoughts" by Nancy Troy is an essay De Stijl and Mondrian
Schroder House, Rietveld, 1924
Reminiscent of Mondrian's Tableau #2 with eye beams painted in primary colors and black for bars and window frames.Interior design reflects the same concepts.
The Red & Blue Chair, Rietveld. 1917-1918, painted wood
An object of beauty that reflected Mondrian's style, it was meant to be shared and reproduced but was uncomfortable and not successful.
Cherrywood and Fabric seat, Breuer, 1922-1923
Member of the Bauhaus that was founded in 1919 and brought together all types of artists in Germany; this chair has a cantilever (horizontal bar w/o end support) and was comfortable and affordable to make.
Wassily Chair, Breuer, 1927-1928, steel
Complicated design and expensive to make. Illusion of floating in space
Cesca Chair, Breuer, 1929, chair caning & steel
Uses cantilever design and the strength of steel for a comfortable and affordable product that was easy to reproduce. Breuer wanted to bring "good design" to the masses.
Automatic Drawing, Jean Hans Arp, 1916, Brush & ink on paper
Celebration of chance to relinquish control.
Collage made according to the laws of chance, Arp, 1916, Torn-and-pasted paper and colored paper on colored paper;
Forms are irregular torn pieces of paper instead of cutting and were dropped, not placed, on canvas; the colors create a balance.
Portrait of Tristan Tzara (Entombment of birds & butterflies), Arp 1916-17 wood, paint, sculpture
Tristan Tzara was a Dada poet from Romania that used chance to write.
The Art Critic, Raol Hausmann, 1918-1920 Lithograph and printed paper on paper
- unusual arrangement of text and image
- pencil is a weapon
- Meant to go against the tradition of painting although it is centered.
"What is Dadaism and what does it mean?" Manifesto
Tatlin at Home, Hausmann, 1920 collage of paper and gouache
- Featured in Berlin Dada exhibition
- wheel is sym. of movement, evolution, optimism and glorification of the machine.
- Machinery in background = creations of imagination
- men in suits = tradition
- map = Germany connected to Russia
Tatlin is centered, referring to traditional paintings
Cut with a kitchen knife, Hannah Hoch, 1919 paper collage
- less traditional and more innovative than Hausmann with photo montage
- Socialist spirit
- central focus w/a head is small but everything revolves around around it like a wheel
- images of wheels all around
- title = Dada
relates to feminism and that women's creativity traditionally occurs in the kitchen
- Ref to "The Painter," a story she wrote in 1920, that describes a male painter that struggles with a female soul/personality
Da-Dandy, Hoch, 1919, Collage & watercolor
- Dandy = a macaroni, a man in bourgeois society who fussed with his looks
- Male profile with female faces and bodies
- Advertises fashion, seduction and societla views of women
- a Dandy male mirrors the interests of a fashionable woman
Nude Descending a staircase (version 2), Marcel Duchamp, 1912, Oil on canvas
Highly influenced in cubism, ref to Picasso's Ma Jolie 1911-12,
- featured in Futurist exhibition in 1912
- Angered critics because of the ambiguity of female/male identity
The Bicycle Wheel, Duchamp, 1913
* Readymade - using objects that were already made and constructing them together. Critics questioned idea of originality
- used obj. similar to Picasso (to sym. genders)
Fountain, Duchamp, 1917
- Appeared in "The Blind Man" a Dada publication.
- R.Mutt was his alter-ego along with Rrose Selavy
- NY society in Independent art wouldn't accept it because it was deemed "immoral and vulgar" and not original work
- According to Duchamp, the only things America has given was its plumbing and its bridges.
L.H.O.O.Q., Duchamp, 1919 pencil on print reproduction
Pencil on reproduction
The Large Glass (The bride stripped bare by her bachelors even), Duchamp, 1915-1923
- upper half = female sphere & bride, bottom = male & bachelors
- ref to Picasso's Painter and model
- work will always transform depending on context, chance is important to who we are
- Broken glass is similar to broken vessels sym. loss of virginity in paintings
- ref christian Marclay, "The Bell and the glass" and LIberty bell cracks
Chocolate Grinder #2, Duchamp, 1914, paint and string
- exists in 3 dimensions, actual string on painting that converges at a point
Etant Donnes (They are given), Duchamp, 1946-1966 mixed media assemblage
- Political "cracks"
- 3D Tableau behind door
- questions of sexuality and post war images are symbolized
- the statue of liberty is symbolized (hand holding gaslight, gift from France)
- combination of bizarre imagery
- Literalizing what was meant in "The Large Glass"
Song of Love, Georgio de Chirico, 1914
Example of surrealism, which is defined in Andre Breton's "Manifesto of Surrealism," which says that surrealism is above reality; the inner reality of the mind and the outer reality of the world is combined. The scale is completely bizarre and images are displaced (ref to "Nadja" by Breton, 1928 imagery of woman and glove).
Grand Metaphysical Interior, de Chirico, 1917 oil on canvas
- Picture w/in a picture
- Interior of the mind
Illumined pleasures, Salvador Dali, 1929 oil and collage on board
- Objects placed in a landscape of the mind
- the world of a dream on canvas
The Persistence of Memory, Dali, 1931, Oil on canvas
His book La femme visible, 1930, includes
Dalí's essay, "The Stinking Ass," that laid the foundations for his paranoiac-critical method, or the ability of the brain to perceive links between things which are irrationally linked. This piece exhibits time distortion, a landscape of the mind and fascination with insects and mystery of the beyond.
- ocean = beyond, constant change
-lion= woman and desire
My grandparents and I (Family Tree), Frida Kahlo, 1936 oil and tempera on metal
- autobiographical, political and personal
Frida and Diego, Kahlo, 1931, Oil on canvas
- Exaggeration of details (foot size)
- Exploring her role of a traditional female
- He has the paint & paintbrushes
The Two Fridas, Kahlo, 1939, Oil on canvas
- Divorced Diego Rivera in 1939 and remarried in 1940
- left is European, Victorian style dress, right is traditional Tehuana dress & holding small portrait of Rivera (matronly relationship to him)
- Hearts are important symbols in Aztec Art & Mexican Identity and mean the symbol of life.
Dance in Tehuantepec, Diego Rivera, 1938 oil on canvas
- Mexican traditional wear
- ref to Coatlicue, a serpent-like Goddess of power in Aztec tradition
The National Palace in Mexico, Rivera, 1929-31, Mural
- 1929 married Kahlo
- Shows history of ancient native Mexican world (pre-colonized)
Between the curtains, kahlo, 1938
Being an individual