AP US History: Chapter 24
Terms in this set (49)
Pacific Railroad Act, 1862
Land grants; commissioned a transcontinental rail line.
Union Pacific Railroad
This railroad company was commissioned to build the transcontinental railroad from the east. Insiders of the Credit Mobilier reaped $23 million in profits; Indians attacked while trying to save their land.
Central Pacific Railroad
Backed by the Big Four, it used Chinese Workers and received the same incentives as the Union Pacific, but it had to drill through the hard rock of Sierra Nevada.
The Wedding of the rails
Representing the completion of transcontinental rail line in 1869
The Big Four
In California, the Central Pacific Railroad was in charge of extending the railroad eastward, backed the Central Pacific Railroad.
James J. Hill
He created the railroad: the Great Northern. Was probably the greatest railroad builder of all.
The Great Northern
This railroad ran from Duluth to Seattle, created by genius architect James J. Hill
Leader of old eastern railroad New York Central.
Instead of each city having its own time zone, to not confuse railroad operators, four national time zones was created.
A method of cheap moneymaking; railroad companies grossly over-inflated the worth of their stock and sold them at huge profits.
Made millions embezzling stocks from the Erie Kansas Pacific, the Union Pacific, and the Texas and Pacific railroad companies.
A group of supposed competitors who agreed to work together, usually to set prices.
Wabash case (Wabash v. Illinois) 1886
issued by Supreme Court, stopped the Grange (the Grange's purpose is to stop the railroad monopoly occurred). States could not regulate interstate commerce.
Interstate Commerce Act, 1887
This act banned rebates and pools; required the railroads to publish their rates openly.
Interstate Commerce Commission
It was set up to enforce Interstate Commerce Act.
Alexander Graham Bell, 1876
Invented the telephone.
Thomas A. Edison, 1879
Perfecto of the incandescent light bulb; invented phonograph, moving pictures, mimeograph, etc. Backed by
Steel tycoon. Master of "vertical integration." Turned to philanthropy and gave huge sums to libraries and arts in his late years.
A business method where a corporation bought out other businesses (though not competitors) along its line of production. Example: Andrew Carnegie
A cheaper way to make steel, boost U.S.'s steel industry. Discovered by an American, William Kelly first, but named after a British person.
A business method where the company bought out its competitors. Example: Rockefeller's Standard Oil
John D. Rockefeller
Oil tycoon. Ruthless and merciless, owned Standard Oil Company which eventually controlled at least 90% of American oil. Was a master of "horizontal integration" where he ruthlessly drove others out of business.
owned by John D. Rockefeller
a business that essentially is a monopoly, could drive smaller businesses to the wall.
J. P. Morgan
Banker and financier. Orchestrated several blockbuster deals in railroads, insurance, and banking. Bought Andrew Carnegie's steel operation for $400 million to start the U.S. Steel Company. Greed, power, arrogance, and snobbery of the Gilded Age business.
U. S. Steel
Company owned by J.P. Morgan, started from buying Andrew Carnegie's steel operation for $400 million.
Gustavus F. Swift
leader of meat industry, trusts which made better products at cheaper prices. (G)
leader of meat industry, trusts which made better products at cheaper prices. (P)
Gospel of Wealth
Many of the newly rich had worked from poverty to wealth; thus felt that some people in the world were destined to become rich; help society with their money.
Applied Charles Darwin's survival-of-the-fittest theories to business. Implied the reason that Carnegie was at the top of the steel industry.
William Graham Sumner
Yale professor, survival of the fittest, natural law, etc.
Sherman Antitrust Act, 1890
This act forbade combinations (trusts, pools, interlocking directorates, holding companies) in restraint of trade. It was ineffective since it couldn't be enforced.
James Buchanan Duke and the American Tobacco Company
He was one who, when the south remained agrarian despite all the industrial advances, developed a huge cigarette industry, and made donations to a college (it is now named after him).
Henry W. Grady and the New South
Editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, urged the South to industrialize.
Southern textile mills
In 1880s, there were only few industries in the South. But by the 1920s, the South had eclipsed New England in terms of yarn and cloth production.
created by Charles Dana Gibson, became the romantic ideal of the age: young, athletic, attractive, and outdoorsy.
Employers could lock their doors against rebellious workers and then starve them into submission.
Contracts that the workers had to sign, which banned them from joining unions.
National Labor Union
This union represented a giant boot stride; only lasted 6 years. Excluded Chinese; didn't welcome Blacks or women. Aim for eight-hour workday.
Colored National Labor Union
Excluded workers such as Chinese or Blacks established this union.
Knights of Labor
It is a labor union similar to National Labor Union, but only bared liquor dealers, professional gamblers, lawyers, bankers, and stockbrokers. Campaigned for economic and social reform.
Joined Knights of Labor, was an Irish-born American schoolteacher and dressmaker who became a prominent labor and community organizer. She helped coordinate major strikes and cofounded the Industrial Workers of the World.
Leader of Knights of Labor; led the Knights won a number of strikes for the eight-hour day; staged a successful strike against Jay Gould's Wabash Railroad in 1885.
Haymarket Square bombing, 1886
It was an explosion in Chicago during labor disorders, killed several people including police officers.
Gov. John P. Altgeld
German-born Democrat, elected governor of Illinois; pardoned the three survivors after studying the Haymarket Square Bombing extensively.
Founder of AF of L, demanded a fairer share for labor; sought better wages, hours, and working conditions.
The American Federation of Labor
The AF of L united many independent small unions and worked out overall strategies. It focused only on skilled labor. Their success was only mild.
Railroad Strike of 1877
This strike's failure exposed the weakness of the labor movement. Racist and ethnic fissures among workers everywhere fractured labor unity.
Labor Day, 1894
Was made a legal holiday as the public started to concede the rights of workers.