Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (59)
A sphere slightly flattened at the poles and bulging at the equator.
Evidence that establishes facts from which the main fact may be inferred
Crust under the oceans
The layer of granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks which form the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores, known as continental shelves
The ability of a substance under high temperature and pressure to flow, even when it is solid
Molten rock that reaches EArth's surface
The mantle of Earth was discovered by Croatian scientist Andrija Mohorovičić shortly after an earthquake in 1909. The detection of the earthquake at different locations on Earth gave Mohorovičić indirect evidence that an earthquake's energy did not travel through Earth at equal speed. He concluded that Earth's composition must change at a certain depth beneath the surface. Today, we know this depth corresponds to the boundary between the crust and the mantle. The boundary is called the Mohorovičić discontinuity, commonly known as the Moh
A collection of matter out of which a new planet forms
Through the process of differentiation, the heaviest elements in the mostly molten Earth sank to the center
Fossils are rocks that formed from the remnants of once-living things
A chemical element from the periodic table that is necessary for life processes on Earth is called an essential element
When the organisms die, the elements return to one of the spheres. The elements are then available to be reused by other living organisms
The Carbon Cycle
The movement of carbon between the biosphere and the other nonliving spheres of Earth
A process by which plants use energy from the sun to transform carbon dioxide into oxygen and organic compound
Oxygen released from plants is then exchanged in the lungs of animals during the process of respiration
The chemical change of a substance caused by burning
The ocean releases carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere. Diffusion is when substances pass from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Therefore, diffusion is a process that exchanges carbon between the hydrosphere, where there is a higher concentration of carbon, and the atmosphere, where there is a lower concentration of carbon
One of the components of acid rain
Coastlines of continents separated today show evidence that they once matched and then drifted apart over many years
German scientist Alfred Wegener hypothesized that the continents were once joined together in a giant landmass, a supercontinent
Earth is made of giant rocky plates
Molten inner portion of Earth
Theory of Plate Tectonics
States that segments of Earth's crust might move across Earth's surface like icebergs in water.
A geomagnetically active region where volcanic material rises from the asthenosphere into the lithosphere
Convection in the mantle of Earth results from the rising of hot rock material and the sinking of cooler rock material.
When plates collide together. Crust is destroyed
When plates pull apart. Crust is created
When plates slide past each other. Crust is not created or destroyed
The study of the major landscape features of Earth and how they formed and re-formed throughout time
The breaking down of materials by ice, water, wind, animals, gravity, and chemical reactions
Occurs as weathered material is carried away by wind and water
After Earth's crust formed, and water filled the basins, giant segments of the crust began to move. These segments are known as lithospheric plates or tectonic plates
Forms where two plates slide past each other at transform boundaries. Also know as lateral faults.
Form when two plates pull away from each other at divergent plate boundaries. Also know as tension stress.
Form along convergent plate boundaries when the plates come together. Also know as compression faults
Forms when lave or ask builds up to form a mountain. They can form at divergent or convergent boundaries.
Form when segments of Earth's crust are bent and doubled over.
Form when stress causes pieces of the crust in a fault zone to be thrust upward to higher elevations.
The process of mountain building is called orogeny. Geologists refer to orogenies when discussing how mountains form and the time it took for a mountain to form
The pushing of two oceanic plates causes subduction
A landmass completely surrounded by water
Where the plates meet, they partially melt. The resulting magma rises to form islands in the ocean. The result of this process is a chain of islands.
Geologists classify the various regions of the United States into different zones based on formation, weather patterns, and rock types.
Molten rock that forms under Earth's surface
When conditions are right, magma moves into a central location in a volcano
Earthquakes occur anywhere rock structures are under stress from movement. The upper portion of Earth's crust is brittle. Tectonic plate motion can cause the crust to break, resulting in an earthquake
The process in which any material changes shape
In this process, Earth's rocks are equated to a rubber band. If you pull back a rubber band, it gains potential energy. If you pull far enough, the rubber band snaps, with a sudden release of that energy. In other words, the excessive deformation of the rubber band results in elastic rebound, which we experience as the release of potential energy suddenly transformed to kinetic energy
Any ground movement that results from energy released during an earthquake
The point in the Earth's crust where the rock ruptures is the focus.
The point on Earth's surface directly above the focus is the epicenter
Scientists study the seismic waves using a seismograph (also called a seismometer). These machines record ground movement by making lines on paper called seismogram.
Also called primary waves they are a type of body wave that travels through the solid and liquid parts of the Earth. They are the fastest type of waves that travel during an earthquake
Also called secondary waves they are a type of body wave that travel through the solid parts of the Earth only.
Also called R-waves they are a type of surface wave that causes intense damage to the surface during an earthquake. They move in a wave like motion like the ocean.
Also called L-waves they are a type of surface wave that causes intense damage to the surface during an earthquake. They move in side to side motion similar to a snake's movement
Gives a rating of 1 to 10 for the intensity of an earthquake
Volcanic Explosivity Index
The explosiveness of volcanoes is rated using a volcano intensity scale known as the Volcanic Explosivity Index. This scale has an intensity rating from 1 to 8.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Our Solar System
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Geologic Processes - Inside Earth
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Rocks and Minerals
Climate and Meteorology
Beginning with Science