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AP Euro: Napoleon
Terms in this set (46)
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
1799-1804. New constitution set up a 3 man consulate, but Napoleon really held the power. Worked as an enlightened despot. Made main reforms.
Napoleon named this after ousting the Directory; remained this until proclaiming himself emperor; first of three
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy
Careers Open to Talent
citizens able to rise in government service purely according on their abilities
Concordat of 1801
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
Bank of France
National Bank created by Napoleon that required every citizen pay taxes, Money used to make loans to businesses, controls money supply (inflation, recession)
Duke of Enghien
Bourbon duke executed after Napoleon accused him of major role in royalist plot to assassinate Napoleon. shocked European aristocrats. assassination plot convinced people to make Napoleon emperor
War of the Second Coalition
Russia, Great Britain, and Austria vs France. , Napoleon and his navy destroyed by England's Lord Horatio Nelson in the Battle of the Nile.
Treaty of Luneville
Feb, 1801. Austrians signed this with France after been defeated by Napolean at Marengo. It gave almost all of their Italian and German holdings to France. Which would make france more powerful also In 1802 a peace was also signed with the British.
Jacques Louis David
French painter known for his classicism and his commitment to the ideals of the French Revolution. His works include The Oath of the Horatii (17850 and The Death of Marat (1793).
1804, Napoleon crowned himself emperor. 1805, set out to conquer Europe. 1801, the empire had peaked. Conquered many lands and introduced French customs in each one. Required heavy taxes to support his army.
The empire over which Napoleon and his allies ruled, encompassing virtually all of Europe except Great Britain and Russia
War of the Third Coalition
Royal officials in Europe begin getting nervous especially when Napoleon crows himself King of Italy. Britain, Austria, and Russia all join together to try and stoop him. Austria loses in the Battle of Ulm and shortly after Russia gets taken out in the Battle of Austerlitz which is considered his most decisive win.
Battle of Trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson.
Lord Horatio Nelson
when Napoleon tried to bring his Mediterranean fleet around Gibraltar to northern France, a combined French/Spanish fleet was, after a series of mishaps, virtually annihilated by Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar on Oct. 21, 1805. Nelson lost his life in that Battle but proved a victory for the British.
Battle of Austerlitz
battle between Austria, Russia, and France; the French under Napoleon defeated the Russian armies of Czar Alexander I and the Austrian armies of Emperor Francis II
Arc de Triomphe
Built to commemorate Napoleon's victories in war
Treaty of Tilst
July 7, 1807. confirmed France's gains. Caused Prussia to lose half of its territory. Tsar Alexander I (1801-1825) unable to fight another battle and unwilling to retreat into Russia he was ready to make peace. then Prussia secretly became allies with Napoleon along with Russia. only Alexanders support saved it from extinction.
Confederation of the Rhine
League of German States organized by Napoleon in 1813 after defeating the Austrians at Austerlitz. The league collapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
issued by Napoleon, forbidding the importations of British goods into any part of Europe, allied with or depended on himself, this established the Continental System.
Order in Council
In November of 1807 the British Privy Council specifically used this order to make a sanction during the Napoleonic Wars. It blockaded French ports unless the ship had gone through and been processed at a British port.
in 1807 which proclaimed that any vessel that submitted to British regulation or allowed itself to be searched by the Royal Navy was subject to seizure by France.
This war was the beginning of the end of Napoleon's Grand Empire after the Spanish rebelled against France for its independence
Russian leaders were never convinced of their alliance with Napoleon and eventually withdrew from the Continental System. Napoleon organized a army to defeat Russian military forces. Russia retreated, but destroyed all food and supplies as they did, leaving the Grand Army with no supplies. They eventually fought a battle outside Moscow where both armies suffered terrible losses. Napoleon tried to negoltiate peace settlements with the tsar, but he refused. Napoleon returned to Paris, abandoning his army in Russia.
Battle of Borodino
the bloodiest battle of the Napoleonic era, fought outside of Moscow; both sides had terrible losses, but the Russian army was not defeated; Napoleon gained nothing substantial and when Moscow was burned, the French forces were left completely cut off. Napoleon regarded this battle as a loss.
War of the Fourth Coalition
Against Napoleon's French Empire. Defeated in a war spanning 1806-1807. Coalition partners included Prussia, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.
Battle of Leipzig
Also known as the Battle of the Nations; in October 1813, the combined armies of the fourth coaliton decisively defeated Napoleon and the French army
Napoleon refuses to agree to foreign minister Metternich's "Frankfurt Proposals" to reduce France to its historical size in return for his remaining on the throne
The Quadruple Alliance was signed by Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia in 1815. The Holy Alliance signed by all European rulers except the Pope, the king of England, and the sultan of Turkey. It was meant to unite Europe, preserve peace, and spread Christianity.
(1814-1824) Restored Bourbon throne after the Revoltion. He accepted Napoleon's Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers (chosen by king) and the Chamber of Deputies (chosen by an electorate).
Charter of 1814
Passed by Louis XVIII, it recognized equality before the law, accepted the Napoleanic Code, granted freedom of the press and established The Chamber of Deputies and The Chamber of Peers.
"First" Treaty of Paris
exiled napoleon to elba and restored the Bourbon line, restored France's old borders
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Klemens von Metternich
He was a Austrian politician and he served for the Holy Roman Empire as a foreign diplomat. He also wanted to restore a balance of power, so that no country would be a threat to another.
Principle by which monarchies that had been unseated by the French Revolution or Napoleon were restored
a payment that is meant to make up for the harm caused by another's acts
Balance of Power
distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
German Confederation (Bund)
39 states out of the original 300, only Britain remained as a growing power-began their century of world leadership from 1814 to 1914( replaced holy roman Empire)
the brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming emperor of France
Battle of Waterloo
The Battle of Waterloo, fought on 18 June 1815, was Napoleon Bonaparte's last battle. His defeat put a final end to his rule as Emperor of the French. Waterloo also marked the end of the period known as the Hundred Days, which began in March 1815 after Napoleon's return from Elba, where he had been exiled after his defeats at the Battle of Leipzig in 1813 and the campaigns of 1814 in France.
Duke of Wellington
British soldier and statesman; he led the British troops against Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo
Concert of Europe
a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions.
a league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the congress of Vienna
the czar of Russia whose plans to liberalize the government of Russia were unrealized because of the wars with Napoleon (1777-1825)
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