Which of the following was not among the small but dangerous international crises the United States experienced in the 1890s?
a) A conflict with Germany over the Samoan islands
b) A near-war with Italy over the lynching of Italians in New Orleans
c) The Valparaiso crisis with Chile over the killing of two American sailors
d) A conflict with Japan over naval refueling rights at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
e) A conflict with Canada over seal hunting near the Pribilof Islands