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US History H Mid-Term Review
Terms in this set (153)
believed that colonies were there to serve the mother country
the Civil War in England during the 1600s allowed the colonies to rule themselves as long as they remained loyal to the king and made money for the king (pimps and hoes)
Which colonial region (New England, Middle Colonies, Southern Colonies) grew rice, tobacco, and indigo?
Which colony was founded on principles of social equality and religious tolerance, and had the most religious diversity (think Quakers)?
the middle colonies, especially Pennsylvania
Which group of colonial settlers (Amish, Quakers, Puritans, Catholics) had religious dissenters, worked hard, strict social beliefs, and lived in New England colonies?
Why did slavery not develop in New England colonies?
cold climate, rocky soil, egalitarian society
Because of the passage of the Maryland Act of Toleration, which religious group was allowed to live and practice in Maryland?
List 3 things the Magna Carta protected.
recognized the rights of Englishmen to be consulted on the levying of taxes, established the idea of a jury of one's peers, ideas of representative government
What does the Mayflower Compact represent in the New England colony?
a clear step toward self-government
Name the 3 colonial regions.
New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies
Describe the relationship between colonial assemblies and royal governors.
colonial assemblies were democratically elected congresses meant to run the colony and royal governors were the king's representatives; colonial assemblies used the power of the purse to control the impact of the royal governor's salary
Why was the establishment of the Virginia House of Burgesses significant?
it was the 1st representative government in the colonies
In English history, the Magna Carta (1215) and the English Bill of Rights (1689) both reinforced the concept of what?
limited monarchy (limited king/queen)
How did colonial regions make money (3 things)?
geographic location, natural resources, human capital
List the 5 major port cities and how did they make money?
Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Charleston; made money through trade
got sent to England and judge got paid more
Why is the French and Indian War often reviewed as a factor or causing the American Revolution?
the high cost of the war meant the British Parliament had to create new taxes in the American colonies to pay for the cost of the war
Why did Parliament begin taxing the colonist?
to pay for the war debts (French and Indian War)
What three purposes did Britain have for the colonist?
to get raw materials, money, and to be loyal
How did the Stamp Act, Tea Act, and intolerable Acts encourage American colonist to consider revolution against British rule?
by raising taxes in the American colonies without ever asking any of the Colonial Assemblies permission
Name 3 reasons the colonist decided to launch the American revolution.
taxation without representation, a belief in self government, and British laws seen as oppressive by the colonist
Why did the colonist not believe the English parliament had the right to tax the colonist?
only wanted colonial assemblies to tax and that parliament shouldn't be involved
What are the three unalienable rights listed in the Declaration of Independence?
life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
Where does Thomas Jefferson say that government derives their just powers from in the Declaration of Independence?
from the people
What advantages did the Patriots have over the British?
home field advantage and they were fighting for a cause/reason
What European country supported the colonist/patriots in the American Revolution?
What is the English Rule of Law?
everyone had to follow the law even the king
Articles of Confederation
the first set of laws that America operated under from 1777-1789
Three Fifth's Compromise
slaves were to count as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of representation and taxation
power is divided between national and state government
judges laws (decides if laws are constitutional or not)
recognized that the ultimate government authority rested with the voters; voters were to be represented by elected legislators who would make decisions in the interests of the voters; voters elect the members of the House of Representatives
in favor of ratifying the Constitution; wanted stronger national government
opponents of the Constitution
Bill of Rights
protects the rights of the individual against an abusive government
Who held all the power under the Articles of Confederation?
authority rested in the states
List 4 weaknesses of the Article of Confederation.
the confederation government was too weak, there was trade interruption with Great Britain, congress couldn't tax the states, no military
What was the significance of the North West Ordinance?
it set the precedent for the creation of new states and declared slavery illegal
Under the Articles of Confederation, how many states were required to pass a law and how many states were required to amend the law?
9 to pass and 13 to amend
What do state governments get to regulate?
What do the Great Compromise and the Three-Fifth's Compromise both deal with?
representation of states in Congress
List three problems the new USA government would face after the American Revolution.
war debt, foreign relations issues (to be allies with Britain or France), who would become president, and lack of unity
What idea was the Constitution and its concepts trying to establish?
a balance of power among three branches where powers were separated out in order to avoid one side from gaining too much power
Why were the Federalist papers written?
written to influence the New Work Ratifying Convention to ratify a stronger national government
Why were the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution?
to protect the rights of the individual against an abusive government; several states ratified only on the condition that a bill of rights would be added
What principle in the US Constitution does this quote support? "The purse and the sword must not be in the same hands."
the money and the military should not be run by the same people
Which clause has allowed the Constitution to still work today?
necessary and proper clause/elastic clause
Why was the checks and balances system created?
to ensure that the power of each branch was limited by a competing power in another branch
Why was the electoral college created?
created to buffer the impact of the popular will on the election of the president
Why did the anti-federalist oppose the Constitution?
they believed that state governments would be more responsive to the needs of the people, worried about personal rights of the citizens
What is an advantage of the checks and balances system?
to make sure no branch has all power; regulates all branches
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
declared that the state legislatures could nullify (declare) an act of Congress to be unconstitutional
How is the Whiskey Rebellion different from Shay's Rebellion?
first time the new government under the Constitution put down a rebellion and showed we now had a strong central government
List 4 things the federalist (Hamilton) supported.
big government, strong national government, supported elites, wanted tariff
List 4 things the Democratic-Republican (Jefferson) supported.
small government, state governments, supported "common man", didn't want tariff
Name the first 2 political parties in America.
the Federalist and the Democratic-Republican parties
Why did Hamilton and Jefferson argue over many issues?
Hamilton read the Constitution loosely and Jefferson read it strictly
List 3 parts to the Alien and Sedition Acts.
changed citizenship requirements from 5-14 years; jailed anyone malicious against the government; deported those who were "undesirable"
Why is Marbury v. Madison important? What did it establish?
established judicial review
How is Jefferson's purchase of the Louisiana Territory ironic?
Jefferson realized the outcome of the case would establish a stronger federal government (big government), especially a stronger judicial branch
From what country did Jefferson buy the Louisiana Purchase, and what impact did the purchase have on the size of the United States?
France, doubled the size of the country
Who was chief justice during the Marbury v. Madison and Gibbons v. Ogden Supreme Court cases?
pride in one's country
the belief that Americans had a God-given right to all the land of the North American contient
Who did the 1828 Tariff of Abomination help and who did it hurt?
it helped the northern industries and southern agriculture
What westward expansion concept does the Trail of Tears help fulfill?
Why was the North more industrial than the South?
the North had safe harbors and rivers for good trade; the trade helped the north make money
Which group of people gained the right to vote (enfranchised) during the 1820s/1830s?
all white males
What was the largest most pressing issue during the era of Manifest Destiny?
Which president do we associate the "common man" and "American Dream" with?
What was the impact of the cotton gin on slavery and cotton production?
called for more slavery and grew the cotton production
What is Jacksonian Democracy and the spoils system?
How did Manifest Destiny contribute to the buildup of the Civil War?
How did the concept of manifest destiny affect the relationship between the US and Mexico?
Us uses concept of Manifest Destiny to justify going to war with Mexico and later conquering Mexico's land and making it part of the USA, thus finally extending the US from Atlantic to Pacific
Who had more manufacturing: North or South?
Why did it take 10 years to annex the Texas Republic?
Texas requested statehood, but was denied in order to avoid the controversy that the addition of the new slave state would rise
Which president got America into the Mexican-American War and what is the date range of the Mexican-American War?
James Polk, 1846-1848
How did the American government approach dealing with Native Americans?
conquest, in which the US used its military to take Native American lands and relocate tribes to areas designated by the US government west of the Mississippi River
Under the Monroe Doctrine, how would the US have viewed a European power attempting to establish colonies in the Americas?
as a military aggressor moving against the interests of the United States
What is ironic about the Monroe Doctrine?
President Monroe did not have the military to back up his statements
What future idea will the Monroe Doctrine be used to justify American intervention in Latin America?
The Big Stick Diplomacy
abolish slavery in America
before war (Civil War)
tax on imports
Why was the Eerie Canal important?
it connected the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes
Why is the American System important?
creating a way to unite the north and west through internal improvements
What abolitionist newspaper did William Lloyd Garrison produce?
Which religious group is credited with being the first abolitionist group?
What is a parallel (similarity) between women and African Americans during the antebellum era?
neither women nor African Americans could vote or hold political office
Where were most immigrants from in 1840s?
Germany and Ireland
Where did most immigrants settle once they came to America?
around growing industries in developed/big cities
List 3 inventions created during the market revolution of the mid 1800s.
the cotton gin, steamboat, sewing machine
What invention allowed goods to be transported upriver, against the current?
How did Southerners defend slavery?
as a positive good
How did Puritans influence education?
taught how to read and write for religious reasons, made education in the North very advanced
What movement did Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton begin in 1848?
The Women's Rights Movement
Who did the protective tariff help and who did it hurt?
helped the north and hurt the south
Kansas- Nebraska Act
opened the area north of the 36 degree 30' to deciding the question of slavery by popular vote; overturned the Missouri compromise
take a vote and decide to be either a slave or a free state
the north opposed the application of Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state so Maine entered at the same time as a free state and Missouri as a slave state; an imaginary line was drawn at the 36 degree 30' line to determine the status of territories and new western states
List the 5 provisions of the Compromise of 1850
1) introduced the principle of popular sovereignty to decide slave questions, 2) California was admitted as a free state, 3) The slavery question in other areas taken in the Mexican Cession was to be decided based on popular sovereignty, 4) The sale of slaves was prohibited in Washington DC, 5) A new fugitive slave law was to be enforced by the federal government.
How does Kansas turn into "Bleeding Kansas"?
competition of pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces turned "Bleeding Kansas" into a battleground and led to the emergence of the Republican Party
What were Lincoln's views on slavery?
he wanted to contain it, not abolish it
Why is the Dred Scott case a big deal?
Pleased Southerners because they could go find their escaped slaves, rule that slaves have no rights, declared Missouri Compromise of 1820 unconstitutional because a slave owner should be allowed to take his property anywhere
What did the Mexican War, Bleeding Kansas, and John Brown's Raid all have in common?
All provoked increased debate over slavery
What was one effect of John Brown's actions at Harper Ferry?
An increased tension between the North and South over slavery
Which Supreme Court case most clearly contributed to the start of the Civil War?
The Dred Scott case
Who wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin"?
Harriett Beecher Stowe
Total War Strategy
Sherman's strategy where you target everything and leave the enemy with no resources
54th Massachusetts Regiment
several African American units and help from abolitionist formed this and led a gallant but futile attack on Fort Wagner in Charleston Harbor
issued by president Abraham Lincoln; when announced it was promoted as a "military measure" against the Confederacy; didn't immediately free the slaves; allowed African Americans to enlist in the army
Which battle was the turning point of the Civil War?
Battle of Gettysburg
Which battle showed the Civil War would be a long and hard fought war?
The Battle of Bull Run
Which battle during the Civil War was the bloodiest battle in US history?
Battle at Antietam
Why was the Civil War fought? (2 reasons)
slavery and state's rights
Describe how African American soldiers were treated during the Civil War.
they served in segregated units under the command of white officers, poorly supplied, and were paid less
List two advantages of the Confederate forces during the Civil War.
experienced military leaders, home field advantage, and a reason to fight
How did the Emancipation Proclamation change the focus of the war?
gave the war a moral purpose
Which battle did Grant win where he captured the Mississippi River?
Battle of Vicksburg
Who was the main Union general and who was the main Confederate general during the Civil War?
Union general= Ulysses S. Grant and Confederate general= Robert E. Lee
List the 3 parts of the Anaconda Plan
blockade the south, take control of the Mississippi River, and captured Richmond
Compromise of 1877
resulted in the withdraw of federal troops and their protection of the freedmen in the south; brought an end to Reconstruction
laws passed on the state and local levels in the United States to limit the Civil Rights and Civil Liberties of blacks
federal agencies that provided services to both blacks and whites displaced in the war; established education, healthcare, job placement
outlawed slavery in the United States
gave the right to vote to all male citizens in the North and South
What was the main purpose of the Jim Crow Laws?
segregate blacks and whites
What did Plessy v. Ferguson legalize?
segregation was upheld by the supreme court, negated equal protection provisions of the 14th amendment
List 3 types of Jim Crow Laws.
literacy tests, poll tax, grandfather clause
List the 3 parts to the 14th amendment.
equal protection under the law, all slaves are citizens, and due process under the law
What is the Solid South?
south remained under control of the Democrats from 1876-1960s
Why did Reconstruction end?
the Compromise of 1877 was created
How were African Americans treated once Reconstruction ended?
caused race issues, segregation, voting issues, economic issues
"survival of the fittest"; those who were socially and economically stronger/better were better fit
a holding company
Chinese Exclusionary Act
Chinese immigrants were no longer allowed into the country after the railroads were completed
the government helped westward expansion through purchase, treaties, and Indian Wars
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
prohibited monopolies and allowed the federal government to investigate companies suspected of violating anti-trust laws
Horizontal integration and who specialized in this?
when one company takes over all and controls all competing companies; John D. Rockefeller specialized in this
Vertical integration and who specialized in this?
practice of owning all of the means of production to keep costs down; Andrew Carnegie specialized in this
Which industry did Rockefeller control and which industry did Carnegie control?
Rockefeller= oil industry and Carnegie= steel industry
During the late 1800s, who did the federal government tend to favor?
What was the negative name for Captains of Industry and why were they called that?
Robber Barons because they were thought to take money for themselves
Which inventions provided more opportunity for women in the work place?
typewriter and telephone
Gospel of Wealth and who believed in it?
the idea that the wealthy had a moral obligation to provide for the less fortunate
Why did labor unions arise in 1800s?
poor working conditions, long hours, and low wages
What did industrial consolidation (business coming together) and trusts reduce during the late 1800s?
Which industries made America's fist millionaires?
Why did the federal government in the late 1800s do little about monopolies in businesses and labor up rest?
big businesses controlled federal government and the federal government favored the big businesses
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