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Orville and Wilbur Wright

brothers that invented and flew the 1st airplane

George Eastman

inventor of the camera

Frederick Law Olmsted

an architect drew up plans for Central Park in NY

Booker T. Washington

African American educator who founded the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute

Tuskegee Industrial Institute

school that taught useful labor skills

W.E.B. DuBois

1st black to get a doctorate from Harvard

Niagara Movement

movement that insisted that blacks get a liberal arts education

Ida B. Wells

reformer who insisted on immediate legal equality for all races/ tried to stop lynching

poll tax

money one had to pay in order to vote

grandfather clause

clause that allowed poor educated whites to vote if their father/grandfather was qualified to vote


racial separation

Jim Crow laws

laws passed in the south that kept blacks and whites separated in private and public places

Plessy v. Ferguson

Supreme Court case that ruled that separating the races is legal.

debt peonage

system where own is forced to work to repay debts

Joseph Pulitzer

owner of the New York World newspaper, he introduced a Sunday edition (comics, sports and women's news)

William Randolph Hearst

owner of the New York Morning Journal and the San Francisco Examiner

Mark Twain

pen name of the novelist and humorist Samuel Langhorne Clemens (The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn)

Marshall Field

1st American department store in Chicago

Louis Sullivan

United States architect known for his steel framed skyscrapers and for coining the phrase 'form follows function' (1856-1924)

Daniel Burnham

Architect who designed The Flat Iron Building in NYC

Thomas Eakins

artist from Philadelphia, was a leader of the Ashcan School which painted

rural free delivery (RFD)

U.S. Postal system that brought packages directly to homes

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