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Science
Physics
Physics 1st Semester Final Exam Review
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Gravity
Terms in this set (55)
hypothesis
an educated, testable guess
physics
the study of matter and their relationships
theory
an explanation based on numerous observations, supported by experimental results
average speed
how fast an object is moving
average velocity
the change in position, divided by the time during which the change occured
Formula for Velocity
Velocity = distance/time
displacement
a change in position having both magnitude and direction; is equal to the final position minus the initial position
distance
a scalar quantity that describes how far an object is from the origin
magnitude
a measure of size
scalars
quantities, such as temperature or distance, that are just numbers without any direction
vectors
quantities, such as position, that have both magnitude and direction
acceleartion
the rate at which the velocity of an object changes
Formula for acceleration
Acceleration = final velocity-initial velocity/change in time
acceleration due to gravity
the acceleration of an object in free fall, resulting from the influence of Earth's gravity
free fall
the motion of a body when air resistance in negligible and the motion can be considered due to the force of an object
velocity time graph
a graph that can be used to plot the velocity of an object versus time and determine to sign of an object's acceleration
force
a push or pull exerted on an object that causes a change in motion; has both direction and magnitude and may be a contact or a field force
free body diagram
a physical model that represents the forces acting on a system
inertia
the tendency of an object to resist change
net force
the sum of all forces on an object
Newton's First Law
states that an object at rest will remain at rest, and a moving object will continue moving in a straight line with constant speed, if and only if the net force acting on that object is zero
Newton's First Law
also known as Law of Intertia
Newton's Second Law
states that acceleration of an object is proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object being accelerated
normal force
the perpendicular contact force exerted by a surface on another object
tension
the specific name for the force exerted by a rope or string
projectile
an object shot in air that has independent vertical and horizontal motions and, after receiving initial thrust, travels through the air only under the force of gravity
gravitational force
the attraction force between two objects that is directly proportional to the mass of the objects
gravitational mass
the size of the gravitational force between two objects
Newton's Third Law
states that all forces come in pairs and that the two forces in a pair act on different objects and are equal in strength and opposite in direction
impulse
the product of the average net force on an object and the time interval over which the force acts
momentum
the product of the object's mass and the object's velocity
energy
the ability of an object to produce a change in itself or in the world around it
joule
unit of energy; J;
kinetic energy
the energy of an object, resulting from its motion
machine
a tool that makes work easier by changing the magnitude or the direction of the force exerted to do work
power
the work done, divided by the time needed to do work
Formula for Power
Power = work/time
Formula for Kinetic Energy
Kinetic energy= (1/2)(mass)(velocity^2)
resistance force
the force exerted by a machine
watt
unit of power; W
work
the transfer of energy by mechanical means; is done when a constant force is exerted on an object in the direction of motion, times the object's displacement
work energy theorem
states that when work is done on an object, a change in kinetic energy occurs
elastic
objects collide and bounce off of each other
inelastic
objects collide and stick together
gravitational potential energy
the stored energy in an system resulting from the gravitational force between Earth and the object
Law of Conservation of Energy
states that in closed, isolated system, energy is not created or destroyed, but rather, is conserved
mechanical energy
the sum of kinetic and gravitational potential energy of a system
Unit for Time
s (seconds)
Unit for Mass
kg (kilogram)
Unit for Velocity
m/s (meter per second)
Unit for Acceleration
m/s^2 (meter per second squared)
Unit for Force
kg * m/s^2 = Newton (N)
Unit for Work
Newton * mass= joule (j)
Unit for Energy
Joule (J)
Unit for Power
j/s= Watt (W)
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