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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
WHAP: Chapter 17 Margin Questions Copy
Terms in this set (10)
In what respects did the roots of the Industrial Revolution lie within Europe? In what ways did that transformation have global roots?
Combination of new, highly commercialized, competitive European societies with the global network of their own making provides a context for understanding Europe's industrial revolution.
Commerce and cross-cultural exchange was basis for technological changes of the first industrial societies. Other areas of the world were just as technologically and economically advanced as Europe but Europe was composed of many small and highly competitive states and prevented economic stagnation unlike China and other larger empires that lacked competition.
Also, being newer, their monarch's desperate need for revenue pushed royals to a unusual alliance with the merchant class. Another reason is that Europe was able to draw upon many world resources by providing machine-goods to the new societies of the Americas.
What was distinctive about Britain that may help explain its status as the breakthrough point of the Industrial Revolution?
Britain was the most highly commercialized of Europe's countries, and its political life further encouraged commercialization and economic innovation. Britain was also more involved in business and commerce around the world.
Great Britain had a distinctive form of the European Scientific Revolution concerned more with observation, experiment, precise measurements, mechanical devices, and practical commercial applications while the rest of the continent was focused more on logic, deduction, and mathematical reasoning. Because Britain's Scientific Revolution was so focused on mechanics, experiments and commercialization, all of this fostered technological innovation in unique Britain.
Several accidents of geography and history as well, such as the country's supply of coal and iron ore.
How did the Industrial Revolution transform British society?
The Industrial Revolution destroyed old ways of living and left the country free to discover or make new ways of life for themselves. The Industrial Revolution changed British society through social conflict, insecurity, and false starts in addition to new opportunities. Eventually, there was a higher standard of living and greater participation in public life.
As a whole, the aristocracy declined because the middle-classes were rising, such as businessmen, manufacturers, and bankers. This rise came from the Industrial Revolution's enrichment of the middle classes. Businessmen eventually rose to lead the major political parties.
How did Britain's middle classes change during the nineteenth century?
Middle-class professionals such as doctors or businessmen start setting the tone for middle-class outlooks and values. This included political liberalism and favoring constitutional government, along with private property, free trade, and social reform within limits. The middle class did make reform, such as the Reform Bill of 1832 allowing men of the middle class to vote.
Ideas of thrift and hard work, a rigid morality, and cleanliness started to characterize middle-class culture, especially the idea of "respectability."
Women were cast as homemakers, wives, and mothers. They started to become educators of "respectability," and managers of household consumption, or "shopping." Later, however, women also started to work, entering teaching, clerical, and nursing professions, and educated middle-class women flood into the labor force.
The lower middle class also grew, which included the service sector jobs such as clerks or salespeople. The lower middle class offered new employment opportunities to women and men by the end of the 1800s, and became a growing percentage of Britain's population (20% by the end of the 1800s)
How did Karl Marx understand the Industrial Revolution? In what ways did his ideas have an impact in the industrializing world of the nineteenth century?
1.Marx saw the Industrial Revolution as the story of class struggle between the oppressor (the bourgeoisie, or the owners of industrial capital) and the oppressed (the proletariat, or the industrial working class).
2.For Marx, the Industrial Revolution bore great promise as a phase in human history, for it made humankind far more productive, thus bringing the end of poverty in sight.
3.However, according to Marx, capitalist societies could never eliminate poverty, because private property, competition, and class hostility prevented those societies from distributing the abundance of industrial economies to the workers whose labor had created that abundance.
What were the differences between industrialization in the United States and that in Russia?
1.In the United States, social and economic change came as free farmers, workers, and businessmen created an industrilized economy without much direct government intervention. In autocratic Russia, change was far more often initiated by the state itself, in its continuing efforts to catch up with the more powerful and innovative states of Europe.
2. In the United States, working-class consciousness among factory laborers did not develop as quickly and did not become as radical unlike Russia, in part because workers in the USA were alowed to unionize and vote and as a result USA workers got better wages and conditions.
3.Unlike industrialization in the United States, Russian industrialization was associated with with the 5 year plans of Stalin
What conclusions could be supported by the map on p. 850?
Rather than developing its own industrialized society Latin American is involved through commerce, investment, trade, and military intervention from the United States. Latin American was closely integrated into world economy exporting primary goods such as coffee and bananas and importing other goods such as textiles and machinery in return. Europeans invested heavily in Latin America as well as immigrated there.
How did Andrew Ure attempt to defend industrialization?
An enthusiast for the factory system and the Industrial Revolution who claims that if the process of industrialization did not improve the standard of living of the working class, it certainly did not deteriorate their conditions. Through Ure's experiences when visiting many factories in Manchester and in surrounding districts, he observed that all the hard work was performed by the steam engine, one of the most useful and important inventions during the Industrial Revolution. With the help of the steam engine, workers were left with such easy tasks as "joining the
threads that break" and "taking the cops off the spindles"
What was the "Dual Revolution"?
Simultaneous French revolution and British Industrial Revolution. Modern society owes its origin to two great upheavals in the 18th century, one political, the other economic. Both were part of a broader pattern of change that, since the Renaissance and Reformation, had set the West on a different path of development from that of the rest of the world. This pattern included the individualism and, in the end, the secularism, that was the Protestant legacy. It also included the rise of science, as a method and as a practice.
How did Lenin revise the ideas of Karl Marx?
Lenin also believed in Marx/Engel's goal of overthrowing capitalism but he stressed politics over economics and wanted to create a political proletariat revolution. Lenin thought the best way to achieve this was through democratic centralization, a secret political party comprised solely of trained and devoted socialist politicians.
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