US History Review - Leo, Luke, and Khalid
Terms in this set (90)
3 Examples of NA tribes- civilized cultures
Olmec, Mayans, and Aztec. Their government and trading was sophisticated and at a higher level than often thought.
The exchange of cultural practices, resources, and disease over the atlantic between Indigenous Americans and Europeans.
The established trade system between Africa, the Americas, and Europe in which the Americas contributed raw materials such as sugar and cotton, Europe contributed weapons and goods to Africans, and Africa contributed labor for the resources with slaves.
Why growth to African slavery?
The need for labor in the Americas was increasing as sugar and other raw materials became luxury goods under high demand in Europe, so the white plantation owners began to look not only to natives, but also to Africans who could be brought over by boat.
The passage for slaves from Africa to the Americas when being brought over to be sold into slavery; very brutal conditions, nearly ¼ of slaves died on the passage.
American Colonization (why different economies developed in each region)
In the South and Caribbean, crops like tobacco, wheat, and sugar were prominent and cultivated in excess; this was due to the the fertile land and lower levels of population. In the north, mining, fishing, and more service based jobs became the center-piece of the economy as the land was not as fertile, the climate wasn't warm enough, and the population caused more crowded areas.
Patriot vs. Loyalist Ideology
Patriots were tired of British rule in the colonies and felt that America needed to declare independence and most felt the only way to do so was go to war. Loyalists were loyal to the crown and felt that the patriots were getting greedy and were not thankful for the British who gave them the opportunity of a new world.
3 Causes of American Revolution
Acts passed by the British government such as the coercive acts, the stamp act, or the sugar act, the failure of representation in the British parliament while still being taxed caused outrage, and the failure of rights to be extended to colonists were all causes of the war.
Declaration of Independence
The document written by Thomas Jefferson declaring independence from Great Britain in 1776.
Articles of Confederation
The precursor to the U.S Constitution that was adopted in 1777, and ratified by all the colonies in 1781. The reason for its repeal and replacement by the constitution was that the government was too constricted and unable to be effective in creating laws and making a progression.
Constitution (Checks and Balances & Separation of Powers)
Document that established the outline for our government and its functions; established three branches: Executive, Judicial, and Legislative. All three handle different aspects and were meant to all hold equal power. The constitution also outlines the most important rights of U.S citizens.
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments of the constitution ratified December 15, 1791. They were the most important rights that the U.S built its ideals on.
2nd Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801 that attracted women, blacks and natives and was used as moral reasoning against slavery.
Someone who opposed slavery.
The state would decide whether or not to continue slavery based on majority.
Civil War - long-term Causes
Slavery, economic differences, Missouri compromise, compromise of 1850.
Immediate steps leading to war (Dred Scott, KS/NE Act, Election of Lincoln, etc.)
The election of Lincoln caused the south to almost immediately began to move towards succession; the constant fight over slavery and state rights was pushed to the tipping point with the overhaul of the government and the formation of the new republican party.
Confederate War Strategies
Defend confederate land from the invasion from the North.
Union War Strategies
Invade confederacy, obtain loyalty from border states, Blockade the Southern Coasts.
Key Battles (Gettysburg, Bull Run, Antietam)
Gettysburg: major turning point in the war, Bull Run: First major land battle of the Civil war, Antietam: bloodiest single day battle in American history, Fort Sumter: marked the beginning of the Civil War.
Proclamation by president Lincoln that abolished slavery.
Rebuilding after the civil war that primarily focused on infrastructure.
Amendments: 13, 14, 15
13: Abolished Slavery
14: No discrimination
15: All men have the right to vote
Reasons for westward expansionism
Overcrowding in eastern cities and the idea of a new start and large profits through the gold rush were all reasons as to why westward expansion became such a large path taken by settlers.
Effect on Native Americans
Westward expansion had a very negative effect on natives. As Europeans pushed west, natives were forced out of their homeland and continued to flee, but also often retaliated. The lack of consideration by the government towards natives led to their low prioritization when it came to fair rulings on their land.
Indian Wars (1860-90)
Battles broke out between settlers and natives. The Sand Creek Massacre, Little Bighorn, and Wounded Knee were the most memorable violent interactions. After Wounded Knee, the natives fell back and became a submissive side-note to settlers.
Encouraged westward expansion and guaranteed a plot of land to settlers to cultivate and pay back in 5 years. It was part of the US's push west.
Was an attempt to for natives to assimilate by taking them of their reservations and breaking them apart from their communities through giving them large plots of land on these reservations, while giving the rest of the land to whites.
The ideology spread through early independent America that it was god's will for settlers to expand and claim all of America as fast as possible.
The destruction of a culture and formation of that body of people into a larger, overseeing cultural community. The tactic employed by the US government and settlers to destroy the bonds of native culture and embody the natives into their new-found culture.
Why Industrialization boom & Why called Gilded Age?
of raw materials. Called the gilded age because in a satirical novel by Mark Twain, he made fun of the thin gold gild( I think it represents the rapid growing economy) masking up all the political and issues that were plaguing the nation at the time.
Negative Impact of Industrialization
Long unsafe dirty working conditions for factory workers, pollution contaminated the environment, low wages and child labor.
He created the US steel company Titan on the steel industry, made a monopoly using vertical and horizontal organization.
John D. Rockefeller
Created the Standard Oil Company and dominated the oil industry.
When an entrepreneur controls all aspects of products manufacturing.
Merging of companies that make homogenous products.
Idea that the best businesses would succeed and the worst would fail that soon extended beyond business into the social constructs.
Idea that government should not interfere with business. And that businesses will become moral on their own.
One Company that holds large percent of a particular market.
Purpose of Antitrust Acts
To get rid of cartels that held unfair monopolies on industry.
Labor Unions' Methods to gain rights (collective bargaining, boycotts, striking)
Labor Union's used collective bargaining to negotiate with unfair management. When things turned dire, labor unions turned to strikes and boycotts to have their demands fulfilled.
Period of time in which activist try to fix the political and social issues that were affecting the country at the time. 1890-1920.
Women's Suffrage (NAWSA vs. NWP strategies)
NAWSA was conservative in its approach to achieving women's suffrage. NWP had more radical views and organized picketing in front of the White House.
Booker T. Washington
Former slave, advocated for economic independence first and then be ready to gain equality later on for blacks.
He created the NAACP, he fought for immediate equality for blacks.
Jim Crow Laws
Laws, primarily in the south, that legalized racial segregation of blacks and whites.
Muckrakers(Sinclair, Tarbell, Riis)
Journalist who went undercover and exposed issues of urban society.
Housing for the poor and immigrants in the urban community.
Social Gospel Movement
A movement tending to Christian values(education, proactive organizations, etc.)
Founder of Settlement House Movement, social activist.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court case that made segregation legal as long as both parties were equals.
Jim Crow Laws
Laws, primarily in the south, that legalized racial segregation of blacks and whites.
Voters proposing a law or an amendment to the constitution.
Method in which voters can vote to remove a public official from office.
At the state level, voters are given a chance to accept or deny legislation.
Federal Reserve Act
Created the beginning of the national banking system.
Pendleton Service Act
Federal employees cannot have their jobs terminated because of their political beliefs/reasons and they shall not add to campaign funds.
Political Machines & positive & negative impacts of Tammany Hall (Boss Tweed)
Negatives- Political Machines were corrupt and hoarded money for themselves. Positives- The average person can be helped quickly by the neighborhood (jobs, place to stay,etc). All they wanted was just a vote when election time came.
Teddy Roosevelt & Conservation
Teddy Roosevelt wanted to keep the beauty of America intact so established a lot of national parks, forest, etc.
Amendments: 16, 17, 18, 19
16th: Created the graduated income tax.
17th - Direct Election of Senators
18th- Alcohol Prohibition
19th- Women were given the right to vote.
"New" Immigrants & shift before & after 1890
Around the 1890s, the wave of immigration from protestant regions around Western Europe began to slow, while immigrants from Southern Europe began to flow into the US.
A place where different people, styles, theories, etc. are mixed together, usually mixed across ethnicity.
Chinese Exclusion Act
In 1882, the US banned the immigration of unskilled Chinese immigrants to the U.S.
Disorientation due to a sudden and dramatic change in culture (immigrants).
The idea that native born Americans were superior to immigrants.
Immigration station in New York Harbor, used for European immigrants.
Negative Impacts of Urbanization
Fires, Overcrowded housing, Sanitation, Pollution, Crime, disease.
The expansion of domination on political, economic, and militaristic levels to other countries and colonies that were less developed than the one imperializing.
Why U.S. Imperialistic?
The United States's main reasons for practicing imperialism were its value of military expansion and cultural superiority, the new economic ties that could be formed, and the need to keep up with the trend of global expansion.
A document claiming that the US must act to keep other European countries out of Central America so the US could explore opportunities in the region.
An extension of the Monroe Doctrine that stated the US should US its powerful strength to create economic relationships and establish a hold at the head of the western hemisphere.
Spanish American War - causes and territory acquired
The war broke out over the United States view that the Sugar production of Cuba was very important to the US economy, and the United States used the Spanish mistreatment of Cubans and the sinking of the USS Maine as a way to start a war in the region. The US aquired Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and the Philippines as territory from Spain, and gave Cuba "independence" through the Platt Amendment.
The method of American journalists to exaggerate the situations in Cuba and other volatile regions that would often push readers to a more aggressive and pro-war stance.
The declaration of independence granted to Cuba by the US in which Cuba was states as independent, but was very assimilated into the US economy and had little independence in reality.
Open Door Policy
The policy approach taken by the US in order to form a more involved trade relationship with China which was emerging as a country with many raw and valuable recourses.
"Big Stick Policy"
Theodore Roosevelt's foreign policy approach in which the United States would use a strong and overpowering military to frighten their enemies into place and be effectively deterred from going against US interests.
The approach to foreign policy taken by Henry Taft in which the US would create a stable economic relationship with other countries through issuing bonds and partnering in trade in order to gain influence and control.
Woodrow Wilson's simple-minded approach to foreign policy in which the US would associate and work with countries that were like them or willing to adopt US ways such as capitalism and democracy.
President of the United States that established a foreign policy of holding a strong presence in regions where the US held strong economic ties and worked to keep other dominant nations out of these regions in order to establish better opportunities for the US.
President of the US during WWI; established a neutral approach to WWI, but was pushed into war by obstruction of US freedom and liberties by German forces.
US approach in the beginning of WWI to stay out of war and keep US interests at the head of the government's list of priorities.
The idea held by many Americans of staying out of global conflicts and communities and to solely focus of the US's well-being.
Causes of WWI (immediate)
The build up of treaties that called for different countries to come to the aid of others at a time of war, the increasing presence of nationalism, militaristic and imperialistic expansion, and the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.
Selective Service Act
An act passed by the US when entering WWI that called for a draft of young US men into the military that pushed for more patriotism and a strong war effort.
Sedition/ Espionage Acts
Act passed by congress that limited the freedom of speech against the government and more specifically the United States's involvement in WWI; the Espionage Act outlawed the leaking of information from the US government to other foreign entities in the time of the war.
Reasons US entered WW I? 88. Why U.S. not neutral & pulled into WW I? Why U.S. not neutral & pulled into WW I?
The United States entered the war in response to several occurrences; the sinking of the Lusitania, a US trade ship carrying passengers; the Zimmermann Telegram which was intercepted by British intelligence and was a message from Germany calling on Mexico to join the fight against the US; the US allies were in need of help more so than before.
The mass migration of Black Americans into the north during WWI and after in search for jobs and better lives with more equality.
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty that was agreed upon that contained the punishments for Germany in wake of the war; the punishments were very harsh and ended up sending Germany into an even more critical shape.
Wilson's 14 Points
Wilson's 14 points that he brought to negotiation after the war primarily focussing on more open trade and stronger relationships and reliability between nations. He also called for the formation of the League of Nations, which the US ended up not joining.
Taxes put on imported and exported goods in an attempt by the government to keep production in the US and stop the outsourcing of jobs.