54 terms

Midterm SG (Biology I)

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How is ATP created?
bonding a 3rd phosphate group to an ADP molecule
How do we get energy from ATP?
break 3rd bond of phosphate group
What is Chlorophyll?
- pigment responsible fro trapping light/radiant energy
- found in plants
- required for photosynthesis
- absorbs all colors except for green which is reflected
What organisms contain cell walls?
- all plants
- bacteria
- some fungi
What is the difference between primary and secondary succession? Which animals are most successful in secondary succession?
- Primary Succession
• colonization of barren land
• nothing has lived there before
• purpose = to build soil
• primary successors = pioneer species
• ex) lichens
- Secondary Succession
• occurs when an existing community is disrupted
and something new grows there
• climax community = overtime soil and rocks build
and create a stable climax community
- large animals are most successful in Secondary Succession
What are the characteristics of living organisms?
1.) cell organization
2.) moves
3.) reproduction
4.) growth and development
5.) obtains and uses energy
6.) responds to stimuli
7.) adapt and evolve
What are the 3 solutions associated with osmosis? Explain each.
- Osmosis = the diffusion of water (high to low)
• hypotonic
- water moves from outside to inside causing
the cell to swell
• isotonic
- water moves at an equal rate (dynamic
equilibrium)
•hypertonic
- water moves from inside to outside causing
the cell to shrink
Review the following cycles:
• Water
• Carbon
• Nitrogen
*SEE BOOK*
- Water
• evaporation
• condensation
• precipitation
•ground water / run off
What are the 3 symbiotic relationships? Explain each.
- Symbiosis = the relationship in which there is a close and permanent association between 2 organisms of different species
- Mutualism
• both organisms benefit
- Commensalism
• one organism benefits and the other is neither
benefited nor harmed
- Parasitism
• one organisms benefits at the expense of another
What is hydrolysis? Condensation?
- Hydrolysis
• water is used to break up a polymer
• water is put in
• energy = released
- condensation
• water is released and 2 monomers come together
• energy = stored
How is energy stored?
energy is stored in...
• 3rd bond of a phosphate group in ATP molecule
• in fat
What are the levels of organization? (start with atom and end with biosphere)
- atom
- molecule
- cell
- tissue
- organ
- organ system
- organism
- population
- community
- ecosystem
- biome
- biosphere
What are the phases of the cell cycle? Include ALL phases.
- Interphase
• G1 = cell growth
• S = DNA copies itself; gives you the 2 chromatids
• G2 = getting ready for mitosis
- M-Phase (Mitotic Phase / Mitosis = nuclear cell division)
• prophase
• metaphase
• anaphase
• telophase
- Cytokinesis
• cleavage furrow forms
• cytoplasm splits
• both cells are an exact copy of one another
• 1/2 cytoplasm and 1/2 organelles
• same size
What is the control group in an experiment? What is the experimental group?
- Control group
• stays the same
- Experimental group
• changes
• gets an independent variable
What is the dependent variable? Independent variable?
- Dependent Variable
• what is being measured
• the problem
- Independent Variable
• effects the outcome of the experiment
• experimental variable
What is homeostasis?
- Homeostasis
• internal balance
• without it you die
What makes an organism organic?
Carbon
What is a trophic pyramid? What level has the most energy? Least energy? How is energy lost to the environment?
- trophic pyramid
• feeding step represented by each organism in a
community/ecosystem
• most energy = bottom
• least energy = top
• with each step up...
- energy decreases (energy lost to
• environment as heat)
- population size decreases
- biomass decreases
What is data?
- Data = information collected from an experiment
- kinds of Data
• Quantitative Data
- numerical data
- SI
• Qualitative Data
- observational data
- words/description
How many ATP are used in Glycolysis? How many are made? What is the net gain?
2 used
4 made

-2 ATP
+4 ATP
= 2 ATP
What is the advantage of a folded membrane?
- more surface area so so the organelle can do more
work
What is a hypothesis?
- an educated guess
What is a monomer? What is a Polymer? Give examples of each.
- Monomer
• an organic molecule; chemical subunit that serves
as a building block for a polymer
• ex) monosacharide (of a carb)
amino acid (of a protein)
nucleotide (of a nucleic acid)
triglyceride (of a lipid)
- Polymer
• a large organic molecule formed when many
smaller molecules (monomers) bond together
• ex) polysacharide (carb)
protein
nucleic acid
lipid
What is the structure of a chromosome?
- 2 sister chromatids held together by a centromere
What are gametes? What is the male gamete? What is the female gamete?
- Gamete
• sex cells
• haploid cells
• Sperm = male (X,Y)
• Egg = female (X,X)
Explain the phospholipid bilayer.
- Phospholipid Bilayer
• selectively permeable
• part polar part nonpolar
• composed of only phospholipids
- phospholipid = a phosphate group (polar
head - hyophillic) and 2 fatty acids (nonpolar
tail - hydrophibic)
- the polar head will arrange itself closest to
water
- the nonpolar tail will be furthest from water
- water and polar head will interact
- water and nonpolar tail will not interact
- EXCEPTION - water and alcohol go straight
thru
• steroids = essential to bilayer
• proteins in bilayer
- aid in selective permeability of cell
- 2 types = peripheral and integral
Explain how pigment works.
- pigment is the result of absorbed and reflected light
- every color is absorbed except for the color that you see
What are the elements associated with the following?
• Carbohydrates
• lipids
• proteins
• nucleic acid
- Carbohydrates
• Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
- Lipids
• Carbon, Hydrogen, and small amounts of Oxygen
- Proteins
• Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and
sometimes Sulfur
- Nucleic Acid
• Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus
Explain the difference between saturated and unsaturated lipids.
- Saturate Lipid (fats/waxes)
• long straight chain
• all single bonds
• a lot of hydrogen
• solid at room temperature
- Unsaturated Lipid (oils)
• 1 double bond
• liquid at room temperature
KNOW ALL OF YOUR ORGANELLES AND WHAT THEY DO.
KNOW ALL OF YOUR ORGANELLES AND WHAT THEY DO.
KNOW WHAT HAPPENS IN EACH STAGE OF MITOSIS.
KNOW WHAT HAPPENS IN EACH STAGE OF MITOSIS.
What are the two processes in photosynthesis? What are the two processes in cellular respiration? What process happens in the middle of each? Where does each process take place?
- Photosynthesis (takes place in chloroplast)
• Light-Dependent Reaction (Electron Transport
Chain)
• Light-Independent Reaction (Calvin Cycle)
- Glycolysis (takes place in cytoplasm
• turns glucose into pyruvic acid
- Cellular Respiration
• Anaerobic (takes place in cytoplasm)
- not part of cellular respiration (no ATP made)
• Aerobic
- Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle
- Electron Transport Chain
What is the difference between passive and active transport?
- Passsive Transport
• no energy used
• 4 types
- Simple Diffusion
- Osmosis
- Facilitated diffusion
- Bulk Flow/Diffusion Thru Ion Channels
- Active Transport
• energy is used/required
• 2 types
- Primary Active Transport = uses your
chemical energy (ATP); only deals with
cations (+) moving against the gradient; all
pumps in your body are this
- Secondary Active Transport = uses the
energy created by the primary transport to
move cations (+) or anions (-) against the
gradient; ex) = endocytosis and exocytosis
What is the purpose of Calvin's Cycle? Kreb's (Citric Acid) Cycle?
- Calvin's Cycle = to create glucose
- Kreb's Cycle = to break down sugar
What is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain?
oxygen (ETC can't run without it)
What is contained in the nucleus of an atom? What revolves around the nucleus?
- Nucleus
• protons (+)
• neutrons (0)
• electrons (-) revolve around the nucleus in the
electron cloud
What is ethics?
- Ethics
• moral principles and values help by humans
• defined by society
KNOW THE STRUCTURE OF A CHLOROPLAST AND MITOCHONDRIA
KNOW THE STRUCTURE OF A CHLOROPLAST AND MITOCHONDRIA
What is the difference between a theory and a law? What is a hypothesis?
- Theory = an explanation of a natural phenomenon that is supported by a large body of scientific evidence obtained from many different investigations; can be proven wrong
- Law = a statement based on a collection of ideas, observations, and hypotheses that will most likely not be proven wrong and is considered a fact
- Hypothesis = an educated guess
Explain range of tolerance.
- Range of Tolerance = ability of an organism to with stand fluctuations of biotic and abiotic environmental factors
Explain the fluid mosaic model.
- fluid because of many molecules that move around
- mosaic because of the many molecules in it (lipids,
steroids, phosphates)
Know the building blocks for the four life substances.
- Carbohydrate
• monosacharides
- Lipids
• triglyceride
- Proteins
• amino acids
- Nucleic Acids
• nucleotides
Whatelement is removed to make a fat unsaturated?
Hydrogen
What do genes control the production of?
proteins
What is the Scientific Method?
1.) Make anObservation
2.)Form a Hypothesis
3.) Perform an Experiment
4.) State your Conclusion
5.) Form a Theory
What is a climax community?
an unchanged, stable, secure community
What is an ion?
an electrically charged particle of atoms
What is Brownian Motion?
states that molecules and atoms move in random patterns
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HAPLOID AND DIPLOID CELLS?
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HAPLOID AND DIPLOID CELLS?
What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic?
- Prokaryotic
• NO nuclear membrane
• "before the nucleus"
- Eukaryotic
• contains a nuclear membrane
• "true nucleus"
What do plant cells contain that animal cells do not? What do animal Cells contain that plant cells do not?
Mitochondria
Ribosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Lysosomes (animal)
Cytoplasm
Cilia and Flagella
Nucleus
Cytoskeleton (animal)
Centriole (animal)
Cell Wall (plant)
Vacuole (plant)
Chloroplast (plant)
What is equilibrium? Dynamic Equilibrium?
- Equilibrium
• no concentration gradient
- Dynamic Equilibrium
• molecules move in and out at the same rate
What is evolution?
the gradual change in a species through adaptations over time
What is the chemical formula for photosyntheis? Cellular respiration?
- Photosynthesis
• 6CO2 + 6H20 --> C6H1206 + 602
- Celular Respiration
• C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy