a type or style of literature, e.g. science fiction (Gattung, Genre)
the writer of a piece of literature
someone who writes texts
the situation in which events happen and which helps you understand them (Zusammenhang, Kontext)
a name of a piece of literature (Titel)
main message about life or human nature that the author is trying to express
the message of the story is: love is wonderful but it can also hurt. (Botschaft, Aussage)
the message of a piece of literature or something that you can learn from it (Moral)
His poems always have a humorous tone. (Ton)
the level of style of a text (Stilebene, Register)
the particular way in which a piece of literature is written (Stil)
a composition written in rhythmical lines (Gedicht)
the writer of a poem (Dichter)
14 lined poem, 10 syllables per line
traditional poem that expresses an appreciation for someone or something (beauty, justice or truth)
(to) consist of
stanza / verse
Poems are often divided into stanzas or verses. (Strophe)
a part of a song that is sung after each verse Refrain
A sonnet always has 14 lines. (Zeile)
a part taken from a longer piece of literature (Auszug)
the events of a story make up the plot (Ereignis)
(events) arranged as they happened in time
the key struggle between different characters in a piece of literature (Konflikt, Widerstreit)
poetry with no regular rhyme scheme
correspondence of sound between words or the endings of words, especially when these are used at the ends of lines of poetry e.g. cat rhymes with hat
(to) rhyme with
sich reimen mit
Reim mitten in der Zeile
2 rhyming lines The sun shines bright, (A) It hates the night. (A)
the pattern of stress in a poem (Rhythmus)
a person in a story; the qualities of a person
metre (BE) / meter (AE)
a regular rhythm pattern in a poem (Metrum)
lyrical I / self
speaker / persona
the person who is telling the story or poem (Sprecher / lyrisches Ich)
'Slow' is the antonym of 'fast'. (Gegenwort)
a word that means the same as another word e.g. big / large (Synonym)
humour (BE) / humor (AE)
what makes something funny; a pice of funny writing (Humor, humoristischer Text)
Poetes create effects with stylistic devices like metaphors, rhymes or repetition. (Stilmittel, Stilfigur)
visually descriptive or figurative language, especially in a literary work (e.g. metaphors and similies) (Metaphorik, bildhafte Sprache)
The images the writer uses help you to create pictures in your mind. (Bild, Vorstellung)
Language that cannot be taken literally since it was written to create a special effect or feeling.
language used in a special way to create a special effect made up of words and phrases which don't mean what they first appear to mean
figure of speech
rhetorische Figur, sprachliches Bild
repetition of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words e.g. 'Along came a crowd of crazy cats.'
the repetition of words or group of words at teh beginning of successive sentences or subordinate clauses for emphasis.
epiphora / epistrophe
repetition of words at the end of clauses, sentences or lines
repetition of the same vowel sound in adjeacent or closely connected words
e.g. 'Oh no, my mobile's broken.'
comparison of 2 unlike things without the words "like" or "as" (A is B) Your eyes are a deep, blue oceans.
comparison of 2 different things by using "like" or "as" to make a description more emphatic or vivid (A is like B) 'She is as pretty as the setting sun.' (Vergleich)
something that symolically stands for something else A rose or a heart are symbols of love.
humorous use of words saying the opposite of what you really mean e.g. Oh, what a nice present! (when you actually mean 'It is rather ugly')
Exaggeration makes things, events or characters larger than they are in real life and hence memorable. e.g. There were thousands of guests at Tom's party.
statement in which the true importance of an idea, event or fact is minimized, so that something is deliberately presented as being much less important, valuable, etc. than it really is. It is often used for ironic effect.
a question to which the answer seems obvious and is therefore not necessary. A rhetorical question pushes the reader or listener to a certain conclusion.
e.g. Can one person make a difference?
giving two or more parts of one or more sentences a similar form to create a definite pattern
e.g. We ran fast, they jumped high and she shot well.
pun / wordplay
the use of a word which may be understood in two different ways or which may be put into a different context to change the meaning
the use of a lot of similar words or phrases within a few lines in order to emphasize a description or impression
e.g. Motorcycles, busses, cars, coaches, bicycles, lorries, vans were passing by - there was no way to cross the road.
listing of words, phrases or ideas. (Aufzählung)
opposing views, words or characters are brought together to emphasize thier difference and usually to highlight on of the opposing elements
techinque of presenting animals, objects or abstract ideas as if they were humnan beings or possessed human qualities (like speaking, thinking or acting)
e.g. Trees hate humans with saws.
Songs and poetry often create effects by use of repetition. (Wiederholung)
statement that seems impossible because it contains two opposing ideas that are both true.
e.g. In this rich country, there is a lot of poverty.
(direct or indirect) reference to something or someone the reader is supposed to recognize and respond to such as people, places, events, or works of literature
e.g. This festival was my personal Woodstock.
the formation of a word from a sound associated with what is named
the use of strong overstatement. It may be used to create either a serious or comic effect.
e.g. I'm so hungry I could eat a horse.
a way of expressing something in a gentle manner instead of the normal one in order to express something unpleasant or embarrassing
e.g. "He passed away" instead of "He died"
a short extract from a piece of literature that shows something interesting or useful