48 terms

Chapter 11: Human Development


Terms in this set (...)

Changing existing mental structures to explain new experiences.
Age of viability
The age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth.
The belief that all things are living.
Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing mental structures without changing them.
A close, emotional bond of affection between infants and their caregivers.
The tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other important aspects.
Cephalocaudal trend
The head-to-foot direction of motor development.
Cognitive-behavioral treatments
A varied combination of verbal interventions and behaviora modification techniques used to help clients change maladaptive patterns of thinking.
Piaget's term for the awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance.
Cross-sectional design
A research design in which investigators compare groups of subjects of differing age who are observed at a single point in time.
An abnormal condition marked by multiple cognitive defects that include memory impairment.
The sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death.
Developmental norms
The average age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities.
An increase in the strength of a habituated response elicited by a new stimulus.
A limited ability to share another person's viewpoint.
Embryonic stage
The second stage of prenatal development, lasting from two weeks until the end of the second month.
Family life cycle
A sequence of stages that families tend to progress through.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
A collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy.
Fetal stage
The third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months through birth.
Culturally constructed distinctions between masculinity and femininity.
Gender differences
Actual disparities between the sexes in typical behavior or average ability.
Gender roles
Expectations about what is appropriate behavior for each sex.
Gender stereotypes
Widely held beliefs about males' and females' abilities, personality traits, and behavior.
Germinal stage
The first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks after conception.
A gradual reduction in the strength of a response when a stimulus event is presented repeatedly.
The inability to envision reversing an action.
Longitudinal design
A research design in which investigators observe one group of subjects repeatedly over a period of time.
Development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one's genetic blueprint.
The first occurrence of menstruation.
Midlife crisis
A difficult, turbulent period of doubts and reappraisal of one's life.
Motor development
The progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities.
Object permanence
Recognizing that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible.
A structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother's bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother.
Prenatal period
The period from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy.
Primary sex characteristics
The sexual structures necessary for reproduction.
Proximodistal trend
The center-outward direction of motor development.
The period of early adolescence marked by rapid physical growth and the development of sexual (reproductive) maturity.
The two-year span preceding puberty during which the changes leading to physical and sexual maturity take place.
Situation that occurs in cognitive development when the assistance provided to a child is adjusted as learning progresses.
Secondary sex characteristics
Physical features that are associated with gender but that are not directly involved in reproduction.
Separation anxiety
Emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment.
The biologically based categories of male and female.
The acquisition of the norms, roles, and behaviors expected of people in a particular society.
The first occurrence of ejaculation.
A developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established.
An individual's characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity.
Zone of proximal development (ZPD)
The gap between what a learner can accomplish alone and what he or she can achieve with guidance from more skilled partners.
A one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg.