Phases of Meiosis

The process of meiosis creates 4 haploid gamete cells from a diploid cell. In animals these gametes are called eggs and sperm and in plants they are called eggs and pollen. For meiosis to occur it must go through two divisions, Meiosis I and Meiosis II. During Meiosis, the cell goes through the same stages as Mitosis (Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase/Cytokinesis), but it goes through these phases twice, but with some minor differences.
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Meiosis
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Interphase (Stage 1)
DNA is in its chromatin form and the DNA replicates.
Prophase 1
Chromosomes become visible; nuclear envelope breaks down; crossing-over occurs.
Metaphase I
paired homologous chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
Anaphase I
Homologous chromosomes separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell.
Telophase I
chromosomes gather at the poles, nuclear membrane may form, and the cytoplasm divides
Prophase II
Chromosomes condense, spindles form in each new cell, and spindle fibers attach to chromosomes.
Metaphase II
Spindles are fully formed again and attach to the centromeres. The chromosomes line up down the middle.
Anaphase II
The spindles pull the sister chromatids apart. Each goes towards a different pole.
Telophase II
Nuclear membranes start to form around the chromosomes again.Cytokinesis occurs and the two diploid cells have divided into 4 haploid cells
Chromotin
thread like structures containing all genetic information (only "appears" during Interphase)
Homologous Chromosomes
Matching chromosomes that have the same genes in the same order, but may have different alleles of those genes.
Cytokinesis
This process is part of the Telophase (Stage 5) and Telophase II (Stage 9).
Crossing over
the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring.
tetrad
structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
budding
A form of asexual reproduction of yeast in which a new cell grows out of the body of a parent.
regeneration
The ability to regrow a missing part of the body

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