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Chapter 14: Americas on the Eve of Globalization
Terms in this set (45)
First large-scale civilization in North America emerged between the 700s and the 1500s C.E. in what is now the eastern United States. Since it started in the valley of Mississippi River and spread east, it is known as the Mississippian culture.
Results: Enormous earth mounds - pyramid/oval-shaped/in the form of various animals.
Main crops of the Mississipian Culture
Corn, Beans, Squash, Tobacco
Place lived for Mississippian people
Large towns that controlled nearby smaller villages. Each town was built around a plaza and one of temples made of wood.
Largest town of Mississipian Culture
Cahokia, in Illinois - 40000 - interregional trade was widespread
Religious belief of M-Culture
Animism - natural world was filled with spirits
mississipian govt and society
Rigid class structure - chief called the Great Sun ruled each large town; the upper class of priests and the nobles followed. The next lever consisted of the common people (e.eg. farmers, hunters, merchants and craftspeople/laborers) - bottom : slaves, who were prisoners of war. Women did most of the farming while hunting was a male responsibility
Society type for M-Culture - which sex was dominant
Matrilineal society - woman's side of the family
Capital at Tula, northern Mesoamerica (mexico). Population of 60000, ruled by a warrior aristocracy, wealthy landholders were also military learders. Toltecs dominated the region by extracting tribute from conquered peoples.
The Toltecs also conquered Mayan settlements in esouthern Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula.
A cult borrowed from the Mayans that becam ethe Toltec religion.
The Mayan city that shared architectural similarities with Tula
Also known as the Mexicas, claimed the legacy of Toltecs but WERE ORIGINATED FROM A DIFFERENT PART OF MEXICO. Capital in the Tenochtitlan on the site of Mexico City - conquered people over the next 100 years and created empire from Gulf of Mexico to Pacific ocean.
Capital city of the Aztecs - geography for protection and defence so that the city is on an island in the middle of a swampy lake. The city grew they scooped up mud from the lake bottom to create more lands and buildings and farm fields. Tenochtitlan ggrew to 20000 people - largest city in western hemisphere and largest in the world.
The Great Pyramid
Aztec Pyramid in Tenochtitlan made of stone that rose 150 feet into air
Aztec houses were made of
wood with roof from reeds
1 = Floating gardens called Chinampas to increase amount of space for food production on Lake Texcoco.
2 - Lake water to irrigate fields.
3 - no wheeled vehicles, no domistic animals, so walked between settlements and carried everything themselves.
4 - used onyly hand tools
tribute system - insured dominance in the short-run. Conquered people forced to pay tribute/lands and perform military service.
Tribute: practrical goods, food, cloth, etc. and luxury items e.g. feathers, beads, jewelry.
Tributes distributed to Noble Class - local rulers stood in positions as tribute collectors.
In exchange, the conquered people were extended Aztec protection.
2 - Astecs also grouped ccity-states into provinces
Aztec form of gov't
Theocracy, emperor known as the Great Speaker
political ruler of Aztecs and a divine representative of the gods -
Aztec social hierarchy
Great Speaker - Nobles who owned lands, military leadership (all lands and renting to commoners , rest was farmed for landowners by slaves) - scribes and lealers - craftspeople and traders. - finally, peasants and soldiers - finally, slaves (war captives many of them, Aztec people could be enslaved as well, usually because not paying their debts or being punished for crimes)
a special merchant class called pochteca traded in luxury goods
Aztec human sacrifice
Slaves sacrificed during religious ceremonies, and chinchillas too
365-day calendar from the Maya, marking their religious ceremonies - beautiful gold objects, and others
Trade Network of the Aztecs
North to San Luis Obispo, CA and to the Gulf/Pacific coast and Carribbean sea coasts : Cloth, cacao, rubber balls, for shells feathers, and precious stones
Role of Women in aztec societies
Only a few noble women worked as scribes so they were mainly illiterates but they plaed an important role.; They wove the valuable cloth that local rulers demanded as part of the regular tribute for the tribute system. Astec husband might obtain more than one wife in order to be able to pay the tribute as the demand for cloth tribute increased.
The Decline of the Aztecs
The Aztec Empire was in decline by the late fifteenth century - comparatively low level of technology (lack of wheeled vehicles and pack animals) - agriculture inefficient and food preparation difficult. They also dought themselves over militory victory and the ruled poeple were unhappy. Finally, Aztecs died by invading Spaniards and the conquered people rebeled the Aztec rule to crash the empire.
The snanish conquistador who crashed the aztec empire
Origin of the Inca Empire
Early 15th century, Cuzco in Peru - small center for one of the several competing tribes. Cuzo = capital of inca empire - Present-day ecuador in the north to chile in the south
Founder of Inca, the son of a tribal ruler conquered the Chanca peoples. Pachacuti means transformer or shaker.
Pachacuti's sun, took control in 1471 and expanded the empire even farther to conquere the Chimu in the North.
Successor of Yupanqui, focused on consolidating/managing many lands conquered.
Split into four provinces - all conquered people adapt to their ways, each with their own governor and bureaucracy. Leaders who had been conquered who demonstrated loyalty were rewarded.
Then Incan system that required mandatory public serveice for the conquered peoples. Quechua were taught to the conquered people and religion and history. They were also taken to new lands far from their home to strengthen Incan dominance.
based on agriculture - incan families required to turn over a portion to their local ruler. Ruler stored crops in warehouses that Inca Built across the empire. People were fed from warehouses in case of famine.
Royal ancester veneration - royal ancestor cult. Involved dead rulers mummified and continued to rule as they had in life and were thought to retain ownership of their servants/possissions and property.
The name of Inca literal meaning
People of the sun - indeed Inti, the sun god, was the most important of Incan gods.
Rulers were considered to be Inti's representative on earth -
The Temple in Cuzco
honoring of the sun and royal ancester veneration - the temple of the sun in cuzco formed the core of incan religion
, and llamas were burned as sacrifices - serious events such as famines plagues and defeat in war called for human sacrifices - not as frequent as the aztecs. But animal sacrifices occured on every event. Many sacrificed were provided by the conquered people.
Animism in Incan religion
Incas believed that elements of the physical cworld could have supernatural powers
supernatural powers of the elements in the physical world - large geographical feactuers such as a river, the peak of mountain/very small objects e.g. stone, plant, built object, e.g. bridge
System of knotted strings developed by the Incan sin mathematics to record numerical information for trade and engineering and for recording messages to be carried throught the empire.
technique in sophisticated terrace systems for the cultivation of crops (raised beds with channels that captured and redirected rain )
A massive roadway system in the Incan empire with 25000 miles of roads used by govt and military.
Francisco Pizaro and his spanish conquistadors conquered the empire, after the death of Huayna Capac. / or the diseases brought by them.
In mathematics, skilled stone workers, (remarkable structures using mortarless technique of stones), artisan screated ceramic objects, sophisticated terrace system in agriculture
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