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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Chapter 10 Vocab- History
Terms in this set (30)
Proposed that slavery be banned in land acquired from the Mexican War. pushed the country closer to civil war by raising questions about slaves which had not been asked previously.
The withdrawal of eleven Southern states from the Union in 1860 which precipitated the American Civil War.
Compromise of 1850
Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession.
The principle of government stating political power rests with the people; this power is expressed by voting and free participation in government. In the mid-1800s, this term referred to the idea each territory could decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery through the vote of its inhabitants.
Stephen A. Douglas
Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. He wrote the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Freeport doctrine and was a strong supporter of popular sovereignty.
Successor of president Zachary Taylor after his death on July 9th, 1850. He helped pass the compromise of 1850 by gaining the support of northern Whigs for the compromise.
Fugitive Slave Act
A law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowing for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders.
Personal liberty laws
pre-Civil War laws passed by Northern state governments to counteract the provisions of the Fugitive Slave Acts and to protect escaped slaves and free blacks settled in the North, by giving them the right to a jury trial.
A system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada.
American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Author of the antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in response to the fugitive slave act, showing the cruelty of slavery to many in the North, and outraged the South. It sold millions of copies and helped crystallize the ever-growing rift between North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the civil war, becoming a call to action for many.
The act granting statehood to Nebraska and Kansas, also giving those residing in those territories the right to choose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty. Both proslavery and antislavery factions moved to Kansas, beginning guerrilla warfare.
An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States. ____ popularity in the North declined sharply after he came out in favor of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, repealing the Missouri Compromise and reopening the question of the expansion of slavery in the West.
the belief that native-born Americans are superior to foreigners.
the new immigrants in the U.S. began to pose a threat to the "natives" because of their unknown languages and cultures. Some feared that the foreigners would outnumber them and eventually overrun the country. This hostility rekindled the spirit of European religious wars, resulting in clashes between the Protestants and Catholics. Some nativities formed this party in New York called the "Order of the Star Spangled Banner". The members refused to identify themselves and would say they know nothing. They were an anti-Catholic group, until it subsided and slavery became the focal issue. Immigrants were helping to form the U.S. into one of the most ethnically and racially diverse societies in the history of the world.
Free Soil Party
Ardent antislavery men in the North, distrusting both Cass and Taylor, organized the _____. they came out foursquare for the wilmot proviso and against slavery in the territories. Going beyond other antislavery groups, they broadened their appeal by advocating federal aid for internal improvements
Political party that believed in the non-expansion of slavery and comprised of Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free-Soilers, in defiance to the Slave Powers
In reaction to Radical Reconstruction and corruption in Preident Ulysses S. Grant's administration, a group of Republicans broke from the party to form the Liberal Republicans. In 1872, the Liberal Republicans chose this man as their presidential candidate who ran on a platform of favoring civil service reform and condeming the Republican's Reconstruction policy. Also the founder and editor of the New York Tribune
John C. Fremont
An American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery.
The 15th President of the United States (1857-1861). He tried to maintain a balance between proslavery and antislavery factions, but his moderate views angered radicals in both North and South, and he was unable to forestall the secession of South Carolina on December 20, 1860.
American slave who sued his master for keeping him enslaved in a territory where slavery was banned under the Missouri Compromise
Roger B. Taney
Chief Justice in the Supreme Court before the Civil War and his decision on Dred Scott vs Sandford made slavery legal in all US. Also the attorney general and a close friend and loyal ally of the president. When Marshall died, he became the new Surpreme Court chief justice.
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election.
John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged.
A loose union of independent states; name of government used by the southern states that seceded during the Civil War
An American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America from 1861 to 1865.
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