165 terms

2017 Earth Science Semester 1 Exam Review Set

The solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and upper mantle.
An envolope of gases surrounding the earth or another planet.
All the water at and near the surface of the earth, 97% of which is in oceans
Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere.
biogeochemical cycle
The flow of chemical elements and compounds between living organisms and the physical environment.
A series of events that happen over and over again.
3 main layers of Earth
Crust, Mantle, Core
plastic upper mantle
the portion of the mantle lying between 40 and 700 miles below the surface where convection is known to move the lithospheric plates
The spherical center of the earth which includes solid inner core and liquid outer core.
the movement of molecules in a fluid in a circular pattern, transporting both energy and matter of the fluid
tectonic theory
the idea that the lithosphere is broken up into plates that move over the surface of the earth.
diameter of Earth (miles)
8,000 miles
circumference of Earth (miles)
24,000 miles
speed of rotation of Earth at equator (miles per hour)
1,000 miles an hour
time required for Earth to rotate on axis (hours)
24 hours
mass of Earth (Kg)
6 x 10²⁴ kg
main composition of Earth's crust
silicate rocks (~75% silicate)
estimated 0.5% of total Earth Mass
main composition of Earth's mantle
silicate magmas (~46% silicate) rich in magnesium and iron
estimated 67% of total Earth Mass
main composition of Earth's core
suspected as mostly iron and some nickel
estimated 32% of total Earth Mass
time required for Earth to orbit the Sun (days)
365 1/4 days
age of the Earth
4.6 billion years old
diameter of the Sun (miles)
800,000 miles
diameter of Sun - compared to Earth
110 x larger
mass of Sun - compared to Earth
300,000x greater
volume of Sun - compared to Earth
1.3 million times greater
time required for Sun to rotate on axis (at equator)
27 days
diameter of the Moon (miles)
2000 miles
diameter of Moon - compared to Earth
4 x less
mass of Moon - compared to Earth
80 x less
time required for Moon to orbit Earth with respect to fixed stars (sidereal orbit)
27.3 days
time required for Moon to rotate on axis
27.3 days
time required for Moon to appear in same position in sky relative to the Sun - moon phases (synodic orbit)
29.5 days
approximate distance form Earth to Sun (miles and Km)
93 million miles or 150 million km
approximate distance from Earth to Moon (miles)
250 thousand miles
Oceanic plate
Tectonic plates forming the ocean basin. Made of basalt and are thinner and more dense than continents
Continental Plates
Tectonic plates forming continents. Made of granite and are thicker and lighter than oceanic plates.
electromagnetic energy
A form of energy that travels through space as waves from the sun. Causes unequal heating of the Earth
Gravitational energy
Gravitational energy is the potential energy associated with the gravitational field.
point directly over an observer's head
divisions of the year, marked by changes in sunlight and precipitation
radiation that comes from the sun
the time or date (twice each year) at which the sun crosses the celestial equator, when day and night are of equal length (about September 22 and March 20).
formula for density
oblate spheroid
slightly flattened at the poles and bulges at the equator
A molecule composed of one kind of atom; cannot be broken into simpler units by chemical reactions.
A principle that geologic processes that occurred in the past can be explained by current geologic processes
law of superposition
The geologic principle that states that in horizontal layers of sedimentary rock, each layer is older than the layer above it and younger than the layer below it.
rock forming mineral
One of the common minerals that make up most of the rocks of Earth's crust.
A usually light-colored igneious rock that is found in continental crust.
A dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture, found in oceanic crust.
The particles of mineral or other rocks that give a rock its texture.
The look and feel of a rock's surface, determined by size, shape, and pattern of a rock's grain.
igneous rock
A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface.
sedimentary rock
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together.
metamorphic rock
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reaction.
extrusive rock
igneous rock that froms from lava on Earth surface.
intrusive rock
Igneous rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface.
Small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or organisms.
The destructive process in which water or wind loosens and carries away fragments of rock.
The process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind that is carrying it.
The process by which sediments ae pressed together under their own weight.
The process by which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together into one mass.
clastic rock
Sedimentary rock that forms when rock fragments are squeezed together under high pressure.
organic rock
Sedimentary rock that forms from remains of organisms deposited in thick layers.
chemical rock
Sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize from a solution.
Term used to describe metamorphic rocks that have grains arranged in parallel layers or bands.
main characteristics geologists use to identify rocks
color, texture, hardness, & mineral composition
Rock with high silica content and large crystal size, light in color, and forms continental crust
Rock with low silica content, small crystal size, dark in color, and forms oceanic crust
3 main groups of rocks
sedimentary, metaphorphic, igneous
Two main characteristics used to classify igneous rocks
texture and mineral composition
low silica
dark in color
high silica
light in color
Which igneous rock most often used for building material?
order of formation of sedimentary rock
1. erosion 2. deposition 3. compaction 4. cementation
3 major types of sedimentary rock
clastic, organic, chemical
2 types of sedimentary rock that forms from living organisms
Coal and Limestone
How is organic limestone formed?
is a type of rock that is made up of bits of animal shells. Over millions of years these shells collected on the ocean floor. As layers of shells and mud built up, the lower layers slowly hardened into limestone.
process that causes deposits of chemical sedimentary rocks like micrite and rock salt to form
4 examples of clastic rock
breccia, shale, sand stone, conglomerate
uses for sedimentary rock
cement, salt, chalk, paints, fuel, building materials
What processes cause the formation of metamorphic rocks?
Heat, Pressure and Chemical fluids
How do geologists classify metamorphic rocks?
by the arrangements of the grains that make up the rocks (foliated or nonfoliated) and parent material
How are metamorphic rocks used?
building materials and sculptures (marble)
Metamorphic rocks that have their grains arranged in parallel layers or ands are said to be ____________.
Examples of foliated metamorphic rocks
slate (most common), schist and gneiss
Examples of nonfoliated metamorphic rocks
marble and quartzite - they do not split into layers.
Granite (igneous) + heat and pressure = this metamoprhic rock
Gneiss (metamorphic, folicated)
Sandstone (sedimentary) + heat and pressure = this metamorphic rock
Quartzite (metamorphic, nonfoliated)
Shale (sedimentary) + heat and pressure = this metamorphic rock
Slate (metamorphic, foliated)
rock cycle
the processes by which, over many years, Earth's materials form and change back and forth among igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, and metamorphic rocks
Define a Mineral
naturally occuring inorganic solid with definite chemical composition and crystalline structure
Elements in highest abundance in the crust by mass
O SiAl FeCal NaKMg
Oxygen 47% Silicon 28% (these two account for ~75% of the crust by mass)
Aluminum Iron Calcium Sodium Potassium Magnesium
Three types of bonds that hold atoms in minerals
Covalent, Ionic and Metallic
Five locations minerals can form
1. Water at Surface of Earth
--- evaporites: water evaporates, minerals remain
--- precipitates: minerals precipitate from water
2. Hydrothermal Deposits (veins)
--- precipitates: minerals precipitate from water
3. Cooling Magma (igneous)
4. Metamorphic Rock (metamorphism)
5. The Mantle (great depth, temp and pressure)
How do minerals form from magma ?
Minerals form as atoms bond together when molten magma cools
--- slow cooling underground = large crystals
--- fast cooling at surface = microscopic crystals
How do minerals form from hot water solutions ?
Step 1: Water below Earth's surface is heated by magma and dissolves existing minerals
Step 2: While the water cools atoms or compounds leave the solution and crystallize (precipitate) as minerals
Example of 3 minerals formed when water evaporates (called evaporites)
gypsum (CaSO4), calcite (CaCO3), halite (NaCl)
What are mineral veins?
Narrow channels of pure mineral (often metal) that are different than the surrounding rock
What minerals are formed deep in the mantle?
Diamond and Olivine (peridot)
Crystal Shape
The outward 3-D shape of a mineral specimen that reflects the internal atomic structure
naturally occruing inorganic solid with definite chemical composition and crystalline structure
Atoms in highest abundance in the Crust by mass
OSiAl FeCal NaKMg
Oxygen 47% & Silicon 28%
Aluminum Iron Calcium Sodium Potassium Magnesium
Three types of Bonds that hold atoms in Minerals
Covalent, Ionic Metallic
"+" acid test
perfect cleavage in 3 directions @ 75°
gray metal or brown color
red brown streak
olive green color
glassy luster, hardness 6.5
yellow color
sulfurous odor
cubic crystal
salty taste
dissolves in water
one directional cleavage
can be thin as paper
dark color
hardness of 7
hexagonal crystal
most abundant mineral family on Earth
pink, white, gray or brown, hardness 6, 2 directional cleavage
metallic gray luster
cubic crystal
specific gravity ~10
Brass yellow, metallic luster, cubic crystals
fools gold
6-sided prism ending in 6-sided pyramid with glassy purple color
hardness 7
black or gray with brownish tint
metallic luster and magnetic
pearly luster
scratched by fingernail
marks paper
classification based on chemical cmposition
Slicate, Carbonate, Sulfate, Halide, Oxide and Sulfide, Element
Classification based on Use
Industrial, Ore, and Gem
industrial mineral
A naturally occurring rock or mineral that can be used "as-is" for manufacturing or chemical production
A rock or mineral from which a valuable constituent, especially a metal, can be profitably mined or extracted
A durable and lustrous mineral cut and polished for use as an ornament or jewelry
What are some examples of metals and how are they used?
ex: aluminum, iron, copper, silver
-can be stretched into wire
-flattened into sheets
-hammered without breaking
Five locations minerals can form?
Water near Earth's surface
Hydrothermal Deposits
Cooling Magma
Metamorphic Rock
The Mantle
How do minerals form from magma?
-Minerals form as hot magma cools
-Slow cooling underground = large crystals
-Fast cooling at surface = microscopic crystals
How do minerals form from hot water solutions?
-Water below the earth has been heated by magma
-The hot water causes the minerals to dissolve into solutions
-When the solution cools, the elements or compounds leave the solution and crystallize as minerals
What are some examples of minerals formed by evaporation?
gypsum (CaSO4), calcite (CaCO3), halite (NaCl)
What are veins?
narrow channels of pure mineral (often metal) that are different than the surrounding rock
What minerals are from the mantle?
Diamond and Olivine (peridot)
Common Tests for Mineral Identification
Crystal Shape
Acid test
Specific gravity
-Often is the first quality seen in a mineral
-Least useful property of a mineral
-Most easily observed
-Can use to ID a few minerals
-The way a mineral reflects light
-Either metallic or nonmetallic
ex: metallic = mineral shines like a metal (pyrite)
ex: Nonmetallic = doesn't shine like metal (diamond)
-Crystals are geometric solids which contain smooth surfaces
-Exhibits good cleavage
-If allowed enough room minerals often show crystal shape
-ex: Cubic
-ex: Hexagonal
-ex: Triclinic
-Ability of strong magnet to be attracted to a mineral
-Ability of a mineral to emit visible light when exposed to ultraviolet light (black light)
- Color of a powdered mineral
- Usually minerals are rubbed against unglazed white porcelain tile to get the powder
- Describes the appearance of a broken surface
- can be uneven, irregular grainy fracture, or curving.
- The tendency of a mineral to break in smooth flat planes
- Cleavage is a very important property for identification
Acid Test
-Test that helps identify minerals containing calcium carbonate

-When acid is applied to certain minerals (carbonates) and fizzes, it gives off bubbles of carbon dioxide.
-Ability to resist scratching
-Use Mohs Scale of Hardness to test (1=soft 10=hard)
-Can test with fingernail (2.5) copper (3) glass (5.5)
Symetric Crystals
cubic, tetragon, rhombohedron, hexagon, orthorhombic, monoclinic
Asymetric Crystals
specifc gravity
Physical property that compares the mass of a mineral to the mass of an equal volume of water
divergent boundary
boundary between tectonic plates in which the two plates move away from each other, and new crust is created between them
convergent boundary
A tectonic plate boundary where two plates collide, come together, or crash into each other.
transform boundary
Places where crustal plates shear laterally past one another. Crust is neither produced nor destroyed at this type of junction.
A break in the continuity of sedimentary rock strata. Often caused by erosion or intrusion of magma.
Sea Floor Spreading
The process that creates new sea floor as tectonic plates move away from each other at a mid-ocean ridge
rift valley
A long valley created by the separation of continental plates.
mid-ocean ridge
A long line of sea-floor mountains where new ocean crust is formed by volcanic activity along a divergent boundary
Oceanic Crust
The portion of earth's crust mostly beneath the oceans that primarily contains basalt, is relatively dense, and is about 5 km thick
The ancient core of a continent usually the oldest and most ancient rock of a continent.
A crustal block bounded by faults, whose geologic history is distinct from the histories of adjoining crustal blocks.
The distribution, relative positions, and elevations of natural and man-made features of a particular landscape, such as mountains, rivers, and valleys
outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
the fluid layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere; made of mantle rock that flows very slowly, which allows tectonic plates to move on top of it
island arc
a curved string of volcanic islands which are situated close to a boundary between two converging tectonic plates.
unusually deep zones in the ocean - nearly three times deeper than the average depth of the sea floor.
hot spot
unusually hot area in Earth's mantle that is stationary for long periods of time, where high-temperature plumes of mantle material rise toward the surface.
a break in Earth's crust where masses of rock slip past each other
an upward fold in rock formed by compression of Earth's crust (ant hill)
a downward fold in rock formed by compression in Earth's crust (sink hole)
a large area of flat land elevated high above sea level
An oval or circular uplifted area ,often formed by rising magma.

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