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lactase gene regulation activity- unit 6: genetics: proteins and traits
Terms in this set (21)
What is the difference between lactose tolerance and lactose intolerance?
If you're lactose tolerant, you have the enzyme lactase which breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose and so you can digest milk because it contains lactose and you have the enzyme that can break it down.
Why is lactose tolerance also called lactasle persistence?
Because it's the trait that allows adults to continue digesting milk after infancy.
In which cells or tissues is lactase produced?
the cells of the small intestine
What is the role of lactase?
break lactose into glucose and galactose
In general, why is it important for a cell to regulate protein production?
The cell needs enough protein for its needs, but at the same time, if there are too many, the system may be overwhelmed or energy could be wasted.
What are the steps in gene regulation that affect protein levels in a eukaryotic cell?
transcribing, translating, and processing
What is the role of general transcription factors and where do they bind?
They facilitate the binding of the RNA polymerase enzyme that catalyzes DNA transcription. GTF's bind to the promoter region of the gene.
How do activators and repressors affect transcription?
They regulate transcription. Activators increase transcription and repressors decrease it.
Where do activators bind?
To a region of DNA called enhancer region to enhance transcription. They also bind to the regulatory region.
What are two ways in which repressors can interfere with transcription?
Some can bind to the binding side of activators, thus preventing them from binding to DNA and so transcription cannot be activated.
Some can order the chromatin structure to coil up tightly and that makes them unavailable for transcription.
Why can different genes be expressed only in certain types of cells?
Different combinations of multiple transcription factors such as activators and repressors regulate the same gene in different types of cells. This is why the lactase gene is on in a small intestinal cell but off in a skin cell.
Is RNA processing a common way for regulating gene expression?
What is alternative splicing and why is it important?
Splicing different exons together. This is important for enriching the pattern of gene expression in eukaryotes.
RNA interference is a major mechanism of gene regulation in eukaryotes. Explain how RNA interference works.
Small pieces of RNA bind to mRNA to trigger degradation or block translation. This shuts down gene expression.
Which proteins are marked for destruction?
The ones that are no longer needed or damaged.
How does a cell know which proteins should be destroyed?
Large protein complexes called proteasomes recognize the ones that have been tagged with the molecule ubiquitin.
How are these proteins destroyed?
They are degraded by proteasomes
At what level is the lactase gene regulated?
at any step
In what regions of the world is lactase persistence most prevalent?
northern europe and africa
How is lactase persistence an example of human evolution?
The ability to digest milk is a recently derived trait. This means until very recently, we weren't able to digest milk. Therefore, we had to evolve to be able to digest milk.
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