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ITIL 2011 Foundation Study Set
A study guide for the ITIL 2011 Foundation Exam
Terms in this set (309)
What is ITIL?
A set of best practice publications for IT service management
Why do organizations use ITIL?
It provides a formal standard to have service management capabilities audited and certified. It helps close the gaps in capabilities. ITIL provides the knowledge to achieve standards set out by the ISO.
Why is ITIL successful?
- Vendor neutral
- Non prescriptive
- Best practice
What are the components of the ITIL framework?
1) Core Publications
2) Complimentary Guidance
What are the phases of the ITIL Service Lifecycle?
1) Service Strategy
2) Service Design
3) Service Transition
4) Service Operation
5) Continual Service Improvement
What is a Service?
A means of delivering value to a customer by facilitating the outcome that a customer wants without assuming the ownership of specific costs and risks related to that outcome.
What is an Outcome?
The result of an activity following a process or the delivery of a service.
How do services facilitate outcomes?
By enhancing the performance of tasks and reducing the effect of constraints.
What is Service Management?
A set of capabilities for providing value to a customer via service. Service management transforms resources into valuable services.
What is an IT Service?
A service provided by an IT service provider made up of a combination of IT, people and processes.
What are two kinds of IT Services?
1) Customer Facing Services (Directly supports customer and its service level targets defined in the SLA)
2) Supporting Services (Required by a service provider to deliver customer facing services.)
What are the three types of services?
1) Core (Delivers basic outcomes)
2) Enabling (Required to deliver core services)
3) Enhancing (Added to core services to make it more exciting)
What is IT Service Management?
The implementation and management of IT services that meet the needs of the business.
What is Value?
The level to which the service meets a customer's expectation.
Name the characteristics of value
1) Defined by customer
2) Achievement of objectives
3) Can change over time
4) Affordable mix of features
What are the two primary elements of value?
What is Business Value?
Services that provide customer with wanted business outcomes.
What are the components of value?
1) Customer Perception
2) Customer Preference
3) Business Outcomes
What influences the expected service?
2) Past experiences
What are the 4 levels of service provision expectations?
1) Generic level (Core part of service)
2) Expected level (Minimal conditions of service provision)
3) Augmented level (Expectations may be augmented by things customer didn't think of)
4) Potential level (What needs to be done to attract and hold customers)
Who are the Key Stakeholders?
1) Customers (Buy goods or services)
2) Users (Use the service day-to-day)
3) Suppliers (Third parties supplying required goods and services)
What is Service Assets?
The basis for value creation including both resources and capabilities
What is a Capability?
The ability of an organization, person, process, application, Configuration Item, or IT Service to carry out an activity.
What is a Resource?
An IT infrastructure, people, money, or other tangible asset that might help deliver an IT Service.
True or False, A capability is an intangible asset.
What are the design constraints for a service?
- Capability constraints
- Resource constraints
- Utility constraints
- And more...
What is a Process?
A set of activities to accomplish an objective.
What characteristics does a process have?
2) Specific Results
4) Responsiveness to triggers
What does process definitions describe?
What is a Role?
Set of responsibilities, activities and authorities granted to a person or a team.
What is the RACI matrix?
Is an authority matrix used to document the roles and relationships of the stakeholders in a process.
What is a benefit of a RACI matrix?
It can identify weaknesses or areas of improvements.
What is a Process Owner's responsibility?
To be accountable for the overall quality of a process and ensure that a process is fit for purpose.
Detail the Process Owner's responsibilities:
-Sponsor, design change manage process
-Define process strategy
-Assist in process design
-Process documentation is available
-Define policies and standards about process
-Audit process for compliance
-Review process strategy
-Communicate process information
-Provide process resources
-Process technicians have knowledge
-Review for process improvements
-Address process issues
-Identify improvements for the CSI register
-Prioritize improvements in CSI
What is the Process Manager's responsibility?
To be accountable for the operational management of the process.
Detail the Process Manager's responsibilities:
-Coordinate all activities with process owner
-Ensure all activities are carried out
-Appoint people to roles
-Manage resources assigned
-Ensure things run smoothly with process owners and managers
-Identify improvement opportunities
-Review and prioritize CSI improvements
What is the Process Practitioner's responsibility?
Carry out one or more process activities
What is the Service Owner's responsibility?
Accountable for the delivery of a specific service.
What is a Function?
A group of people, tools and resources used to carry out a process activity.
What are the five stages of the Service Lifecycle?
1. Service Strategy
2. Service Design
3. Service Transition
4. Service Operation
5. Continual Service Improvement
What is the objective of Service Strategy
To provide guidance on designing, developing, and implementing Service Management not only as an organizational capability, but also as a strategic asset.
What topics are covered in Service Strategy?
-Development of market spaces
-Characteristics of internal and external provider types
-Implementation of strategy
What is the purpose of Service Strategy?
To define the perspective, position, plans and patterns needed to be able to execute and meet an organization's business outcomes.
What does a Service Strategy define?
-How value is created
-How assets underpin value
-The delivery and funding model
What is the scope of Service Strategy?
- It defines how to deliver services to meet a customer's business outcome
- It defines how to manage services
What is the Business Value of Service Strategy?
It defines performance and the alignment of IT services with the business.
What are the Service Strategy processes and functions?
-Business Relationship Management
-Service Portfolio Management
What is the purpose of Service Portfolio Management?
It ensures the right mix of services in order to balance the investment in IT with the ability to meet business outcomes.
What is a Service Portfolio?
The complete set of Services managed by a Service Provider. The Service Portfolio manages the entire Lifecycle of all Services including the Service Pipeline, Service Catalogue and Retired Services.
What is a Business Case?
A justification for an expenditure with a focus on ROI and VOI including costs, benefits, options, issues, risks, and potential problems.
What is the content of a Business Case?
2. Methods and Assumptions
3. Business Impact
4. Risk and Contingencies
What processes does Financial Management include?
- Charging (Billing)
What cycles are associated with budgeting, accounting, charging?
- Planning cycle (cost and workload forecasting)
- Operational cycle (cost monitored against budget)
What is the purpose of Business Relationship Management?
- To establish and maintain a customer-provider relationship.
- To identify customer needs and meet the customer needs even when they change.
What actvities does Business Relationship Management Activities refer to?
- Actvities that represent the service provider to customers through marketing, selling and delivery activities.
- Activities that facilitate customer advocacy throughout the service lifecycle.
Define Patterns of Business Activity (PBA)?
A workload profile of one or more business activities which represents the dynamics of business and interactions with customers, suppliers, partners and stakeholders.
A workload profile is also referred to as?
Pattern of Business Activity (PBA)
What is Demand Management?
Aims to understand, anticipate and influence customer demand for services.
ex. Demand Management works with Capacity Management to ensure that the service provider has sufficient capacity to meet the required demand.
What is the Service Design phase?
The phase that turns service strategy into a plan for delivering the business outcomes.
What is the purpose of Service Design?
- To design IT Services together with governing practices, processes and policies
- To provide an introduction of services to supported environments
What are the objectives of the Service Design phase?
- Design services so effectively that minimal improvements will be required
- Provide continual improvement in all aspects of design
What is the scope of the Service Design phase?
To provide guidance for design of services to meet agreed business requirements both current and future. Including:
1) Describe the principles of service design
2) Introduce service design package and select right service model
What is the Business Value of Service Design?
1) Quality Service
2) Cost-effective Services
What are the processes related to Service Design?
- Design Coordination
- Service Level Management
- Service Catalogue Management
- Availability Management
- Capacity Management
- Information Security Management
- Service Continuity Management
- Supplier Management
Describe the Design Coordination process.
The process in which goals and objectives of service design stage are met
Describe the Service Catalogue Management process.
To provide and maintain a single source of info on all operational and ready to be introduced services
Describe the Availability Management process
The process to ensure that the level of availability in services needs agrees with the required needs
Describe the Capacity Management process
The process in which capacity of services and infrastructure meets agreed capacity and performance requirements
Describe the Information Security Management process.
The process of ensuring that the confidentiality, integrity and availability of an organizations assets, information, data and services match the agreed upon needs of the business.
Describe the IT Service Continuity Management process
The process that supports the Business Continuity Management process by managing risks that could affect services.
Describe the Supplier Management process
The process that obtains value for money from suppliers.
What are the the 4 P's in Service Design?
- People (culture, organization, skills)
- Product (systems, infrastructure, tools)
- Processes (how, where, when)
- Partners (suppliers, manufacturers)
What are the 4 P's in Service Design used for?
To provide a balanced view of overall service
What are the five aspects of Service Design?
1) Service Solution
2) Technology and Infrastructure
4) Service Management Systems and Tools
Why is automation of technology and architecture beneficial?
It can improve utility and warranty of services incresing value.
What is the Service Design Package?
A document defining all aspects of the IT Service and its requirements through each stage of the lifecycle.
When is the Service Design Package created or edited?
- New service
- Major change to service
- Removal of service
- Changes to the SDP itself
How is the Service Design Package used?
It is passed from Service Design phase to the Service Transition phase and contains information to enable testing, introduction and operation.
What is the purpose of Service Catalogue Management?
To provide a single source of information on all operational and ready for production services.
What are the two views of the Service Catalogue?
1) Business Service Catalogue View (Delivered to the customers-with info on Business Processes and Services)
2) Technical Service Catalogue View (Delivered to all supporting IT services with info on Services and Technical Domain)
Describe the Service Level Management process
The process in which the current and planned services are delivered to the agreed targets and at the agreed service levels
What are the objectives of the Service Level Management process?
- Define, document, agree , monitor, measure, report and review the level of IT services provided
- Provide and improve the relationship with business
- Monitor and improve customer satisfaction
- Ensure IT and customers have clear expectations
What is the scope of the Service Level Management process?
SLM provides a point of regular contact and communication to the customer and business managers of an organization with regards to service levels
What are the three types of Service Providers?
- Internal Service Provider
- Shared Service Unit
- External Service Provider
What are the three Service Design Agreements?
1) Service Level Agreements (SLA's)
2) Operation Agreements (OLA's)
3) Contracts/Underpinning Contracts (UC's)
What is the Service Level Agreement?
Agreement between an IT service provider and a customer(s). Defines the key targets and responsibilities of both parties. A mutually beneficial agreement is reached.
What is the Organization Level Agreement?
Agreement between an IT service provider and another part of same organization that assists with service provision
What is the UC?
A contract binding agreement between two or more parties (between third party and the IT Service Provider) that defines the targets and accountabilities required for providing the service.
What are four Service Level Agreement Frameworks?
- Service based SLA
- Customer based SLA
- Corporate SLA
- Multi Level SLA
What is the definition of Service Level Requirements?
A customer requirement for an aspect of an IT service
What is the definition of a Service Level Agreement Monitoring Chart?
Monitors and reports against agreed Service Level targets (monthly report showing targets have been met, missed or threatened)
What is the definition of Service Improvement Plan?
Overall program or plan of prioritized improvement actions for services and processes with associated risks.
What is the definition of a Service Review?
A meeting between customer and the service provider to review service achievements and to contribute to Service Improvement Plan.
What are some Service Level Management Activities?
-Determine, document and agree on requirements
-Negotiate, document and agree on SLA for operational services
-Monitor service performance against the SLA
-Collate, measure and improve customer satisfaction
-Produce service reports
-Perform service reviews and improvements within the Service Improvement Plan
-Review and revise SLAs/OLAs, service scope and underpinning agreements
-Develop contracts and relationships
-Handle complaints and compliments
What is the purpose of Availability Management process?
To ensure that the level of availability delivered in services meets the agreed availability need and service level targets
What are the objectives of Availability Management process?
-Produce and maintain availability plan
-Ensure service availability achievements meet agreed targets
-Assist with availability related incidents and problems
-Assess impact of changes
-Improve availability of services
What is the scope of Availability Management process?
-improvement of service and component availability
What are two levels of availability?
1) Service Availability (All aspects of service availability and unavailability)
2) Component Availability (All aspects of component availability and unavailability)
What are two availability management activities?
1) Reactive activities (monitor, measure)
2) Proactive activities (plan, design, improvement)
What is Vital Business Functions?
A function that reflects the part of business process that is critical to success of business
What is the purpose of the Capacity Management process?
It ensures the capacity of the IT service and infrastructure meets the agreed capacity and performance requirements
What are the objectives of the Capacity Management process?
-Produce and maintain capacity plan
-Provide advice and guidance to business on capacity and performance issues
-Assist with performance and capacity incidents and problems
-Assess impact of changes on capacity plan
What is the scope of the Capacity Management process?
The scope considers all resources required to deliver service and plans for short, medium and long term requirements
What is the Capacity Plan?
A plan used to manage resources required to deliver services. It contains scenarios matched to patterns of business activity
What are the Capacity Management Sub-Processes?
1) Business Capacity Management (Demand Management and Patterns of Business Activity)
2) Service Capacity Management (Service usage and workloads)
3) Component Capacity Management (Use and capacity of individual technology components)
What is the purpose of the Information Security Management (ISM) process?
Ensure confidentiality, integrity and availability of org's assets, info, data, and services match agreed needs of business
What are the ISM concepts?
-Non-Repudiation (transactions can be trusted)
What is the Information Security Policy?
Governs the org's approach to Information Security Management
Who should the Information Security Policy be communicated to?
Everyone except for Type III service providers (third parties)
What is the purpose of the IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) process?
Manage risk that could affect IT services and that the IT service can always provide minimum agreed business continuity service levels
What are the ITSCM process activities?
-Requirements and Strategy
What is a Business Continuity Plan?
Define steps required to restore business process following disruption
What is the purpose of Business Impact Analysis (BISA?
To quantify the impact to the business that loss of service would have
What is risk?
An uncertainty of outcome which could cause harm or loss or affect the ability to acheive a desired objective.
How is risk measured?
By the probability of threat, the vulnerability of assets to the threat, and impact of it occurring
How can the impact of risk be measured?
Qualitative and Quantitative
What is the purpose of the supplier management process?
Ensure all contracts/agreements with suppliers support needs of business, and that contractors meet their commitments
What are the supplier categories?
What is the purpose of the Design Coordination process?
ensuer goals of service design stage are met with single point of coordination within this stage
Volume/Phase 3: Service Transition - What is it?
The phase of developing and improving capabilities for introducing new and changed service in supported environemnts. How to transition an org from one state to another while controlling risk.
What is the purpose of Service Transition?
Ensure new, modified or retired services meet expectations of business as documented in service strategy and service design stages
What are the objectives of Service Transition?
-Plan and manage service changes
-Set expectations on performance and use of new or changed service
-Ensure service changes create expected business value
-Provide knowledge and info abuot services and assets
-Manage risk to new, changed, retired services
-Deploy services releases in supported environments
What is the scope of Service Transition?
- Managing changes to services and service management processes
- Introduce new services
- Changes to existing services
- Discontinuation of services
- Transfer services to/from other providers
What is the business value of Service Transition?
- Align new/changed services with business requirements
- Maximize value to the business operations
What are the Service Transition processes?
- Service Assets & Config Management
- Change Management
- Release & Deployment Management
- Knowledge Management
- Transition Planning & Support
What Service Transition processes support all lifecycle phases?
- Change Management
- Service Asset & Config Management
- Knowledge Management
What Service Transition processes primarily support the Service Transition phase?
- Release & Deployment
- Transition Planning & Support
What is the purpose of Change Management?
To control lifecycle of all changes to be made with minimal disruption to services
What are the objectives of the Change Management Process?
- Respond to customer's changing requirements
- Respond to business request for change
- Record and evaluate change
- Record changes to config in the CMS
- Optimize business risk
What is Change?
Addition, modification, removal of anything that could have an effect on IT services
What is the scope of change?
Changes to all architecture, processes, tools, metrics, documentation and to IT services and other config items
What is Request for Change (RFC)?
A formal proposal for a change
What is a Change Proposal?
A formal proposal for major changes that involve high cost, risk or org. impact.
What do Change Models have?
- Predefined steps for handling change
- Defined order of steps and dependencies
- Defined responsibilities for staff
- Defined time scales for activity completion
- Defined Escalation procedures
What is Change Advisory Board (CAB)?
A body to support authorization of changes. Assists in change management, assessment, prioritization, scheduling of change
What is Emergency Change Advisory Board (ECAB)?
When a decision is needed quickly for an emergency change, the full CAB may not be available. Authorization of emergency changes will be done by this (ECAB) body.
What are the Change Types?
- Normal Change (Any service change that is not standard or emergency change)
- Standard Change (Trigger defined, budget available,pre-authorized change of low risk, common and follows procedure)
- Emergency Changes (Change that must be implemented ASAP, designed carefully, tested before use, but documents updated after)
What are Change Management Activities?
-Create and Record the RFC (request for change)
-Assess and Evaluate RFC
-Coordinate Change Implementation
-Review and Close Change
What is Remediation Planning
Action taken to recover after a failed change or release.
What processes does the Change Management process interface with?
- Business Change
- Program and Project Management
- Organizational & Stakeholder Change Management
- Sourcing and Partnering
What is the purpose of the Service Asset & Config Management (SACM) process?
Ensure assets required to deliver service are controlled and info is available for them
What are the objectives of the Service Asset & Config Management (SACM) process?
- Identify, control, record, report, audit, verify services and config items (CI's)
- Identify, control assets
- Account for, manage, protect CI's
- Ensure integrity of CI's & Config
- Maintain config info
- Support service management by providing info
What is the scope of the Service Asset & Config Management (SACM) process?
Includes management of the component lifecycle of every CI (config item)
What is a Config Item (CI)?
A service asset that needs to be managed to deliver a service
What are examples of Config Items?
Assets such as server licenses and software licenses.
What is the Configuration Management System (CMS)?
The system used to collect and manage Config Items (CI's)
What are the layers of the Configuration Management System (CMS)?
1) Data Layer
2) Information Integrity Layer
3) Knowledge Processing Layer
4) Presentation Layer
What is the Definitive Media Library?
Library where the definitive authorized versions of all media Config Items (CI's) are stored. It also includes licences and copies of documentation
What is the configuration baseline?
The config of a service, product or infrastructure that serve basis for further activities. Can only be changed by formal change procedures. Formally agreed to.
What is the Snapshot?
A snap shot of current state of a config item or an environment. Snapshot is recorded in CMS (change management system). Not always agreed to.
What is the purpose of the Release & Deployment Management process?
To plan, schedule & control the build, test & deployment of releases
What are the objectives of the Release & Deployment Management process?
-Define, agree on release & deployment management plans
-Create and test release packages
-Ensure integrity of a release package is maintained
-Deploy release packages from DML (definitive media library)
-Ensure release packages can be tracked, installed, tested, verified, and/or uninstalled
-New or changed service are capable of delivering agreed utility and warranty
- And more....
What is the scope of the Release & Deployment Management process?
Includes the processes, systems & functions to package, build, test and deploy a release in live use
What does a Release Policy include?
-Frequency of Release
-Roles and Responsibilities
-Grouping of Changes
-Early Life Support Criteria
What are the phases of Release & Deployment?
1) Release and Deployment Planning
2) Release Build and Test
4) Review and Close
What is the purpose of the Knowledge Management process?
Share perspectives, ideas, experience & info to enable informed decisions
(DIKW) - Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom
What are the objectives of the Knowledge Management process?
-Improve quality of decision making
-Enable Service Provider to me more efficient and improve quality, reduce cost, increase satisfaction
-Ensure staff have a clear understanding of value
-Maintain Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS)
-Gather, analyse, store, share, use & maintain knowledge
What is the scope of the Knowledge Management process?
Lifecycle wide process and relevant to all lifecycles
What is Data?
A set of discrete facts
What is Information
Information comes from providing context to data
What is Knowledge?
Composed of tacit (implied) experiences, ideas, insight, values and judgement of individuals
What is Wisdom?
Makes use of knowledge to create value through well-informed decisions
What is the Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS)?
Used to store and manage knowledge, info and data.
What is stored in the Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS)?
-Configuration Management System (CMS)
-Definitive Media Library (DML)
-Service Level Agreements (SLA's)
-Operational Level Agreements (OLA's)
-Info Security Policy
-Continual Service Improvement CSI Register
What is the purpose of the Transition Planning & Support process?
Provide overall planning for service transition and coordinate resources required for it
What are the objectives of the Transition Planning & Support process?
-Plan and coordinate resources
-Coordinate activities across projects, suppliers, service teams
-Establish new or modified management info systems
-Ensure all parties adopt common framework of re-usable processes
What is the scope of the Transition Planning & Support process?
-Maintain policies, standards for service transition activities and processes
-Guide major change or new service through service transition process
Volume/Phase 4: Service Operation - What is it?
The phase of achieving effectiveness and efficiency in providing and supporting services to ensure value is provided to customer, user & service provider
What is the purpose of Service Operation
To coordinate and carry out activities and processes required to deliver and manage services at agreed levels to business users and customers
What are the objectives of Service Operation?
-Maintain business satisfaction & confidence in IT through delivery and support of agreed IT service
-Minimize impact of service outages on day-to-day business activities
-Ensure access to agreed IT services is only provided to those authorized
What is the scope of Service Operation?
- The services themselves
- Service management processes (even though some processes originate in at service design/transition stages, they are continually in use here)
- Technology (management of infrastructure)
What is the business value of Service Operation?
This is where the customer sees the actual value of the services
What communication is part of Service Operation?
-Routine operational communication
-Communication between shifts
-Strategy and Design communication
What processes are related to of Service Operation?
What is the purpose of Incident Management?
To restore normal service operation as quickly as possible, minimize adverse impact on business ops, ensuring hat agreed levels of service quality are maintained
What are the objectives of Incident Management?
- Ensure standard methods and procedures used for response, analysis, documentation, ongoing management and reporting of incidents
- Increase viability and communication of incidents tp business and IT support staff
- Enhance business perception of IT through professional approach and quickly resolving and communication incidents
- Align incident management activities and priorities with those of the business
- Maintain user satisfaction with the quality of IT services
What is the scope of Incident Management?
Any event which disrupts, or which could disrupt, a service
What is an incident?
An unplanned interruption to an IT service or reduction in quality of IT service or failure of a CI (configuration item) that has not yet impacted IT service
Describe Time Scales of Incident Management:
-They are Based on targets in SLA's
-Captured as targets in OLA's
-Escalation based on predefined rules
What should an incident model include?
- Steps to take to handle incidents
- Chronological order of the steps (with dependencies defined)
- Responsibilities (who should do what)
- Precautions to be taken before resolution (i.e. data backup)
- Time scales and thresholds for completion of actions
- Escalation procedures
- Necessary evidence-preservation
What is a major incident?
Presents greater urgency and can have significant detrimental impact on business:
-Shorter time scale
-Different roles and responsibilities
What are the Incident Management activities?
-Identification (through user, vendor, e-mail, phone etc.)
-Categorization (drives reporting, routing, prioritization, trend data)
-Prioritization (combo of urgency and impact)
-Initial Diagnosis (service desk)/Escalation (level 2,3 support)
-Investigation and Diagnosis
-Resolution and Recovery
-Closure (surveys, documentation, formal closure)
How do you categorize an incident?
-Keep it simple
-Use multi-level categorization
-Use categorization for reporting
How do you prioritize an incident?
-A combination of urgency and impact
-Urgency: how quickly the business needs resolution
-Impact: How many services affected, how many users affected, effect on business reputation
How do you escalate an incident?
- Hierarchical escalation (Inform or involve more senior management to assist)
- Functional escalation (Transferring an incident, problem or change to a technical team with higher experience to assist)
Who owns an incident?
Ownership regardless of escalation remains with the service desk
What interfacing processes are associated with Incident Management?
- Service level management
- Information security management
- Capacity management
- Availability management
- Configuration management
- Change management
- Problem management
- Access management
What is the purpose of Problem Management?
To prevent problems and resulting incidents from happening, to eliminate recurring incidents and to minimize the impact of incidents that cannot be prevented
What are the objectives of Problem Management?
- Prevent problems and resulting incidents from happening
- Eliminate recurring incidents
- Minimize the impact of incidents that cannot be prevented
What is the scope of Problem Management?
- Activities required to diagnose the root cause of incidents and to determine resolution to problems
- Ensure resolution is implemented through correct control
- Maintain info about problems, workarounds and resolutions
What is a problem?
The underlying cause of one or more failures
What is a workaround?
Way of reducing or eliminating impact of incident or problem where a resolution is not available yet
What is a known error?
Problem that has a documented root cause and workaround
What is the Known Error Database (KEDB)?
- Objective is to facilitate faster diagnosis and resolution
- Stores previous knowledge of problems & incidents
It's part of the SKMS (service knowledge management system)
- Speeds up resolution
- Concern of data quality
What is a Problem Model?
- Similar to incident model
- For problems that have an expensive solution
What are the activities associated with Problem Management?
-Investigation and diagnosis
-Create a known error record
What should Major Problem Review focus on?
-What went right
-What went wrong
-How to improve
-How to prevent recurrence
-Who was involved
When do you conduct a major problem review?
After closure and it is linked to major incident review
What is the relationship between Incidents and Problems?
Incidents never become problems. They co-exist
What two processes is Problem Management made up of?
1) Reactive = Triggered in reaction to an incident (engages problem management during an incident)
2)Proactive = Triggered by activities seeking to improve service (major problem review, trend analysis)
What processes interfaces with Problem Management?
-IT Service Continuity Management
-Service Level Management
-Release and Deployment Management
-Seven Step Improvement Process
What is the purpose of Event Management?
The ability to detect events, make sense of them and determine right control action
What are the objectives of Event Management?
-Detect all changes of state that have significance to management of a CI or IT service
-Determine appropriate control action for events + communication
-Provide trigger or entry point for execution of service operation processes
-Provide means to compare actual operating performance and behaviour against design standards and SLA's
-Provide basis for service assurance and reporting and service improvemnt
What is the scope of Event Management?
Applied to any service management that needs to be controlled and can be automated:
-Environmental conditions (fire, smoke detection)
-Software licence monitoring (ensure legal use & allocation)
-Security (intrusion detection)
-Normal activity (tracking use of application or performance)
What is an Event?
It can be defined as any change of state that has significance for the management of a Configuration Item or IT Service
What is an Alert?
Is a notification that a threshold has been reached, something has changed, or a failure has occured
What are three types of events?
1) Exception Events (a user attempts to logon to app with incorrect password, unusual situation in a process that may indicate an exception, a device's CPU is above acceptable use rate, PC Scan reveals installation of unauthorized softw.)
2) Warning Events (service memory use reaches within 5% of acceptable performance, completion tile is 10% longer)
3) Informational Events (scheduled workload has completed, user has logged in to use app, e-mail has reached intended recipient)
What is the purpose of Request Fulfillment?
It's he process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all service requests from users
What are the objectives of Request Fulfillment?
-maintain user and customer satisfaction
-Provide channel to request and receive service
-Provide info to users and customers re. availability of services
-Source and deliver components of requested services
-Assist with general info, complaints, comments
What is the scope of Request Fulfillment?
Up to each org to decide which service requests it will handle
What is a Service Request?
Is a request from a user for info, advice, standard change, or access to an IT service
What is the purpose of Access Management?
Tp provide the right for users to be able to use a service or group of services
What are the objectives of Access Management?
-Respond to requests for granting access
What is the scope of Access Management?
Executing the policies in information security management
What are the basic concepts of Access Management?
-Service or Service Groups
What are the Service Operation Functions?
-IT Operation Management
What does the service desk do?
-Single point of contact for users (to service provider)
-Communication to users
-Coordination for several IT groups and processes
What is the business value of the service desk?
-Reduce negative business impact
-Improve customer service, perception, satisfaction
-Increase accessibility through SPOC (single point of contact)
-More meaningful management info
What are the objectives of the service desk?
-To restore the normal service to users as quickly as possible
-Restoration of service in the widest possible sense
What are the options of organizational structures of a service desk?
-Local service desk = physically and culturally close to user community
-Centralized service desk = merging multiple service desks together
-Virtual service desk = use of technology to make up service desk, such as working from home
What is technical management?
It refers to the groups, departments or teams that provide technical expertise and overall management of the IT infrastructure
What is the role of technical management?
-Custodian if technical knowledge and expertise (managing the IT infrastructure)
-Provides the resources to support the service lifecycle
-Provide guidance to IT ops about how to carry out ongoing ops management of technology
What are the objectives of technical management?
To help plan, implement and maintain stable technical infrastructure to support the org's business processes
What are the technical management groups?
What is the purpose of IT Operations Management?
To execute the ongoing activities and procedures required to manage and maintain the IT infrastructure so as to deliver and support IT services at the agreed levels
What are the objectives of IT Operations Management?
-Day to day processes and activities
-Diagnose and resolve IT operations failures
What are the components of IT Operations Management?
-Backup and restore
-Print and output management
-Performance of maintenance activities
-Data centre Management
-Coordination consolidation projects
-Management of outsourcing contracts
What is the purpose of Application Management?
Is responsible for managing applications through their lifecycle
What is the role of Application Management?
-Custodian of technical knowledge related to managing apps
-Provide resources to support service lifecycle
-Provide guidance to IT ops about carrying out ops management of apps
-Integration of application management lifecycle into service lifecycle
What are the objectives of Application Management?
To support the org's business process by helping to identify functional and manageability requirements for application software & to assist in design & deployment, plus ongoing support and improvements
Describe the overlap between functions in the Service Operations phase:
Technical and IT Ops Management are involved in management and maintenance of IT infrastructure
Technical and Application Management are involved in design, testing, improvements of CI's
IT Ops and Application Management are involved in application support
Volume/Phase 5: Continual Service Improvement (CSI) - What is it?
The phase of creating and maintaining value for the customer through improvements to strategy, design, transition and operation of service
What is the purpose of Continual Service Improvement?
To align IT service with changing business needs by identifying and implementing improvements to IT services that support business processes
What are the objectives of Continual Service Improvement?
-Improvements to the entire lifecycle (review, prioritize, make recommendations)
-Focus on effectiveness and efficiency (identify and implement specific activities to improve effectiveness and efficiency)
-Using proven quality management methods
-Ensuring appropriate measurements
-Review and anlalyze service level achievements)
-Improve cost effectiveness
-Ensure applicable quality management methods are used
-Understand what to measure, why it is being measured and what the successful outcome should be
What is the scope of Continual Service Improvement?
-The overall health if ITSM as a discipline
-The continual alignment of the service portfolio with the current and future business needs
-The maturity and capability of the org, management, processes and people used by service
-Continual improvement of all aspects of the service and the assets that support them
What activities support Continual Service Improvement?
-Review mngmt info and trends (meeting agreed service levels and ensure output of enabling processes are acheiving desired results)
-Conduct maturity assessments
-Conduct internal audits (employee & process compliance)
-Review existing deliverables
What is the business value of Continual Service Improvement
Value is optimized across entire lifecycle:
-gradual and continual improvement in quality
-Service remains continuously aligned to business requirements
-Improvements in cost effectiveness
-Monitoring and reporting ti id improvement opportunities
-Id opportunities for improvements in org structure, resourcing, capabilities, partners, technology, staff skills, training, communication
What is governance and what does it do?
Ensures that policies and strategy are actually implemented and that required processes are correctly followed. It's t he single overarching are that ties IT and business together!
What is the Deming Cycle?
It is an Improvement Model:
Plan = relates to a problem
Do = completing the project activities
Check = review or audit of activities and outcomes
Act = focus on improving capabilities based on Plan, Do, Check.
What is the CSI approach?
It's an Improvement Model based on the Deming Cycle:
1) What is the vision?
2) Where are we now (establish baseline)?
3) Where do we want to be (agree on goals)?
4) How do we get there (detail plan)?
5) Did we get there (measure)?
6) How do we keep momentum going (Embed culture of change)?
What is the purpose of the even steps to improvement?
Define and manage the steps needed to identify, define, gather, process, analyze, present and implement improvements
What are the seven steps to improvement? E!
1) Identify strategy for improvement (vision, strategy, goals)
2) Define what you will measure
3) Gather the data (Who? How? When? Data integrity?)
4) Process the data (frequency? Format? System? Accuracy?)
5) Analyze Data (Trends? Targets? Improvements Required?)
6) Present and use the info, assessment,summary, action plans)
7) Implement Improvement
What is the scope of the seven steps to improvement? E!
-Analysis of he performance and capabilities of services and processes
- Continual alignment of portfolio of IT services with business needs (current, future)
-Making best use of technology
- The org structure, capabilities of staff, appropriate functions and roles, required skills
What are the objectives of the seven steps to improvement? E!
-Identify opportunities for improvements
-Identify what to measure
-Review service achievements
-Continually align and realign service provision with outcome requirements
-Understand what to measure, why and define successful outcome
What is the CSI register?
The Continual Service Improvement Register: Is kept to record all the improvement opportunities
What is a basline measurement?
A point of reference for continual improvement. Used as a starting point to measure effect of a service improvement plan
What levels are baselines established at?
-Strategic = Goals and Objectives
-Tactical = Process and Maturity
-Operational = Metrics and KPI's
What types of metrics are there and what are they?
- Technology Metrics = component and application metrics such as performance, availability
- Process Metrics = CSF's, KPI's and activitty metrics for service management process
- Service Metrics = measure of end to end service performance, using individual technology and process metrics
What are CSF's?
Critical Success Factors = Something that must happen if a process, project plan, or IT service is to succeed
What are KPI's?
Key Performance Indicators = A metric used to measure achievement to a CSF and help manage a process, service or activity (balance of effectiveness, efficiency and cost effectiveness)
Information Technology Infrastructure Library
Continual Service Improvement
Responsible, Accountable, Consult, Inform
Critical Success Factor
Key Performance Indicator
Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom
IT Service Management
Service Knowledge Management System
Configuration Management System
Configuration Management Database
Definitive Media Library
Change Advisory Board
Known Error Database
Service Level Agreement
Service Level Management
Supplier and Contract Management Information System
Business Continuity Plan
What is the purpose of ITIL Core Publications?
To provide best practice guidance to all types of organizations.
What is the purpose of ITIL Complementatry Guidance?
To provide guidance for specific to industry sectors, org types, operating models and technology architectures.
What is Utilitiy?
Fit for Purpose - The functionality of a product or service from a customer's perspective.
What is Warranty?
Fit for Use - A promise (in SLA) that a product or service will meet agreed requirements.
Information Communication Technology
True or False, Resources are tangible assets.
What does a process do?
It takes inputs and turn them into outputs.
Where is a role defined?
A role is defined in a process or function.
Detail the Service Owner's repsonsibility.
-Ongoing delivery meet agreed customer requirements
-Understand and translate customer requirements
-Communication with customer for inquiries and issues
-Identify opportunities for service improvements
-Liaising with process owners
-Gather and analyse stats and data
What is a Service Pipeline?
All services under development, growth and Outlook.
What is a Service Catalogue?
A database or structured document with information about all live IT Services, including those available for deployment. It includes information about deliverables, prices, contact points, ordering, and request processes.
What are Retired Services?
Services that are no longer available.
Return on Investment
Value of Investment
Total Cost of Ownership
Pattern of Business Activity
Business Continuity Management
Operation Level Agreement
Vital Business Function
Business Impact Analysis
Request for Change
Service Asset and Configuration Management
Change Advisory Board
Emergency Change Advisory Board
Single Point Of Contact
Service Level Agreement Monitoring Chart (SLAM)
Used to help monitor and report achievements against Service Level Targets.
A SLAM Chart is typically color coded to show whether each agreed Service Level Target has been met, missed, or nearly missed during each of the previous 12 months.
What are the two types of customers?
1. Internal - works for same business as service provider
2. External - works for a business other than the service provider
What is Utility?
Fit for purpose-the functionality of a product or service to meet a particular need.
What is Warranty?
FIt for use-a promise or guarantee that a product or Service will meet its agreed requirements.
What are the two types of Service Catalogues?
1. Business Service Catalogue
2. Technical Service Catalogue.
What is a Function?
A group of people and the tools they use to perform one or more processes or activities.
What is a Role?
A set of responsibilities defined in a process and assigned to a person or team.
What is a Process?
A structured set of activities designed to accomplish a specific objective.
What are the five Service Operation processes.
1. Event Management
2. Incident Management
3. Request Fulfillment
4. Problem Management
5. Application Management
What are the four Service Operation functions
1. Service Desk
2. Technical Management
3. IT Operations Management
4. Application Management
What drives service design?
Functional requirements, SLAs, benefits and design constraints
Internal Service Provider
A service provider which functions within the business units they server.
Shared Services Unit
A service provider which functions in a special shared service unit not maintained at the corporate level by executives such as IT, HR and logistics.
External Service Provider
A service provider which functions outside of the organization that can offer competitive prices and lower unit costs.
What is availability?
Ability of a Configuration Item or IT Service to perform its agreed Function when required. Availability is determined by Reliability, Maintainability, Serviceability, Performance and Security.
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