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A level product design
Terms in this set (110)
Joining theroplastics. Melts the surface. Capillary action pulls it into gaps.Applied to both faces. 24 hr. solvent. Chemical weld.
Same as tensol
Polyvinyl acetate (PVA)
Wood glue. Water soluble. Will stain surface. 24hr.
Epoxy resin (araldite)
Thermosetting plastic resin that goes hard when mixed with with a catalyst/hardener. 1:1. Can be used on most materials. Not touch skins.
Good for gluing laminates (Formica) to flat surfaces. Applied to both surfaces. Left to go tacky. Bonding is instant. Toxic
Hot glue gun
Thermoplastic adhesive melted by electrical heating element. For models.
Metals that contain iron which means they will rust. Magnetic.
White cast iron
Hard to work with because it hard and brittle.
Grey cast iron
Best because it can be cast into intricate shapes
Likely to shatter if dropped. High thermal conductivity.
Alloy of iron and carbon. The more carbon that is added the harder it becomes (between 0.15% and 0.30%) it's very mailable and can be easily cut.
There are both medium and high carbon steels. High carbon steel is used in products such as hammerheads and drill pieces
Metals which contain no iron. They will not rust and are not magnetic
Light, Soft and malleable. Conducts heats and electricity well. Usually alloyed. Thin oxide layer that forms on the outside protects it but prevents the metal flowing when welding.
Malleable, ductile metal that has excellent heat and electrical conductivity. It's also corrosion resistant and is therefore used in central heating systems.
Easily worked, has a protective oxide layer. Corrosion resistant and used therefore to galvanise steel.
Metals that have been made by mixing to or mor metals or metals and an element to create metals with enchanted properties
Steel, chromium and nickel. Makes the steel corrosion resistant
Aluminium, copper and manganese. Lightweight strong ductile and malleable. Age hardens over time.
Copper zinc. Corrosion resistant. Casts and machines well. Heat and electrical conductivity.
Amber (fossilised tree sap)
Latex (form of rubber from trees)
Can be formed using heat. Made up of a long chain of molecules held together by mutual attraction called van der waals forces. When thermoplastics are heated the bonds weaken and become more pliable.
Stiff, hard, durable, but brittle and can break
High density polyethylene
Good electrical insulator, chemical resistant, impact resistant, flexible. Break under stress.
Light, brittle, weak, ignites easily. Buoyant insulator
Light, hard, impact resistant, chemical resistant.
Mixing a resin and catalyst. Once formed cannot be reshaped. Monomers linked by covenant bonds that are to strong to be reshaped
Corrosion resistant, electrical resistant. Can cause allergic reaction
Strong hard Brittle, heat resistant. Toxic vapours released during manufacturing
Good electrical insulator. Heat resistant. Brittle can crack
Broad leaved trees that can take 80-100 years to grow. This makes them more expensive. They produce tough strong wood with close grain
Strong hard tough, works well. Expensive prone to splitting
Easy to work, finishes well. Prone to warping. Physical hardness varies
Tough, polishes well. Prone to warping. Not suitable for outside. Furniture
Cone bearing conifer trees (needle) that take about 30 years to grow. Cheaper. Easier to work than hardwoods
Straight grain, easy to work, knots can make parts hard to work. Floorboards furniture
When two or more materials are combined to improve mechanical functional and aesthetic properties. Usually have good strength to weight ratios
Glass reinforced plastic (GRP)
Made of thermosetting plastic resin that has been reinforced using fine glass in the from of matting or strips to improve tensile strength. Used for boats but is prone to osmosis. Must be made in well ventilated area
Carbon fibre composites that can take tensile loads are combined with a polymer matrix that is able to to take compressive loads. Much stronger than GRP and can be used on sports cars
Medium density fibreboard (MDF)
One of the most common composite materials. Waste wood is debarked by being bashed together then put through a chipper. The chips are subjected to heat and pressure which turns the wood into a fine wood pulp. The pulp is then combined with a synthetic resin that is designed to bond the fibres together. This is then heated and put under pressure through rollers to make it into uniform sheets. Less likely to split because it doesn't have any knots, easier to work with, Fine dust is made. a high quality veneer if it's being used in a product although it can be very heavy.
Chipboard is usually only used internally because it can become water logged swell and break down.
Laminates are at least two layers bonded together. Laminates do not warp or mishape. Laminates usually don't have as good a finish as solid woods and therefore have to be painted or a veneer added. Dovetail and finger tail joints can't be used so knockdown fittings have to be used.
Made of layers of veneeer glued together at 90 which makes it very strong. There is always an odd number of layers which also makes stronger. usually with nicer pieces on the outside layer or veneer
Made of strips of softwood around 25mm wide. The sheet is then covered either side with veneer and glued together under high pressure. Veneer strips may be required on the edges to cover cheap looking edges
They have an internal structure that makes them very hard and they are very stable at high tempretures. They are therefore used in situations where these properties are required such as jet engines
Tinted and photochromic glass
Silver halide impregnated in the glass Atomically darkens the glass when exposed to UV light. Used in glasses that change colour under bright sunlight
Photovoltaic cells are made from thin layers of silicon that have various impurities added. When exposed to sunlight one layer can become electron rich while the other is deficient. This creates a flow which can be tapped.
Liquid crystal display
Liquid crystals are organic carbon based compounds that can have both liquid and solid crystal characteristics. When a cell containing liquid crystal has a voltage applied it appears to go dark. For items such as digital clocks voltage is applied to the parts that should light showing the time. LCD isn't very battery demanding making it good for portable devices.
Full colour LCD
Each pixel is divided into three sub pixels with red green and blue filters. By controlling and varying the vocal get applied the intensity of each sub pixels can range over 256 colours
Converts electrical energy into luminescence by applying a voltage across electrodes. An organic phosphor is sandwiched between two conductors and an electric current is applied. It rapidly charges phosphor crystals which emit radiation in the from of visible light. Made in the form of paper thing wires strips or panels which can be applied to advertisements by lighting up different parts of posters.
A material that reacts to an outside stimulus and then once the studious has been removed changes back into its original state. The stimulus is usually heat or electricity.
Shape memory alloy
Can be deformed having been given outside stimulus and returns to its original shape once stimulus is removed.
Unlike photochromic glass reactive glass required an outside stimulus such as an electric current.
Contains pigments that change colour according to light conditions.
Nuts and bolts (GOOGLE DOC)
Cutting a thread into a hole. Turn 1/4 back every 1/2 to clear waste
A tap is used to cut thread into materials
Dies and a die stock are used for cutting a thread onto a rod. Dies are manufactured from high speed steel so they can cut through mild steal. Drunken threads when not at 90
Used in situation where components need to be seperated on a shaft. Can be made of HDPE Nylon and steel
Can also be used as spacers, anti-vibration devices and locking devices because they increase the surface area that the bolt is pushing down on.
Used in engineering. Made of carbon steel. Parallel sides with standard threads cut into them. Come with countersunk (classic looking) heads and cheese heads. Countersunk allow it to be flush with the materials and cheese heads are cylindrical heads that sit on top.
Used for wood. Have countersink, raised and round heads. Raised are similar to countersink but the head is slightly raised. Round headed sit on top of the wood.
Made of soft iron because they have to be ductile to be hammered into place. Countersunk, snap (domed) and flat (like cheese head)
Pop Rivets are usually made of aluminium and are fixed into place with a pop rivet gun.
A wheel which teeth have ben cut onto. The teeth mesh creating a gear train.
Allows the two gears either side to turn in the same direction
Rack and pinion
Rack and pinion can be used to turn rotary motion into linear motion. They are used on steering mechanisms of cars.
Transmits forces though 90 degrees
Used to reduce friction in rotary (bikes) reciprocating (sowing machines) linear (a gun) and oscilating (pendulum) movement.
A sleeve of bearing material. Usually made of bronze. But they wear out. Ceramic ones due to being porous can absorb oil and therefore lubricate.
Same as plane bearing but a thick layer of grease means the shaft never comes into contact with the support
Compound gear trains
Multiple train gears that link together
Small balls held in a ball race that allows the inner race to spin independently from the outer
Change rotary motion into reciprocating linear motion.
Follow the shape of a cam moving in a linear motion
Flat cam follower
Lots of friction. Can't follow intricate shapes.
Knife cam follower
Can follow intricate shapes but wears quicker
Roller cam follower
Least friction. Can follow interacted shapes. Most expensive but doesn't require replacing as much
Pear shaped cam
Can create an even consistent rise and fall.
Eccentric or circular cams
Can be off centre. Creates a smooth but uneven rise and fall.
Heart shaped cams
Used in sowing machines. Like a double pear
"Tailor made" bespoke or customised. Usually high cost manufactured to a client specification and hand crafted.
The production of identical products in predetermined batches which can vary from 10s to thousands. Flexibility in machinery and workforce allows for a quick turn around so product can quickly be changed.
Makes use of automated manufacturing reducing down time. To created a large amount of product cheaply
Used to created mass produced products that have an everyday constant need. Uses automated processes that only have to stop for routine maintenance
Molten metal poured into a sand mould with a cavity of the desired shape.
The shape created to create the cavity in the mold. Made of mdf and foam. Mdf patterns must have sloping sides so they don't damage the mold as they are removed. "
Petrabond / green sand
Oil + sand / water + sand. Sand must be dry otherwise the mould could explode
The bottom half of the mould
The top half of the mould
Hole that metal is poured into
Where air escapes and metal rises up showing the mould is full.
Removing the waste metal
Die moulds are reusable moulds made of steel. Moulds are sprayed with lubricant. Moulds are pushed out by pins. Better surface finish
Generate output with uniform acceleration and retardation
Cutting away metal by passing it past a rotating cutter
Similar to milling but usually with wood composites and plastics
Work moved in the opposite direction to the rotation of cutter
Making holes by using a rotating cutting tools
Most common type of drill. Made of high speed steel.
Used to drill deep holes in wood
Used to drill flat bottomed holes in wood.
Used to drill deep holes with a carpenters bit. Guarantees getting the centre of a hole.
Creates an indent that allows a countersunk screw to sit flat
Saws that are circular shaped cutting rings that range from 20mm to 150mm in diameter
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