History of Computers
Terms in this set (30)
This is considered to be the first calculating device. The Chinese developed it in the year 2600 B.C.
He developed "Napier's Rods." It was a calculator made from rods. It allowed people to multiply numbers faster.
He was a mathematician who developed the "Pascaline." This was the first mechanical adding machine. The Pascaline was a wooden box that could add and subtract by using a series of gears and wheels.
He developed a weaving machine that was controlled by punch cards. This invention led to the method of storing information by using punch cards.
He invented the "Tabulating Machine." The Tabulating Machine used punch cards to store information. It was later used to tabulate the U.S. Census.
He is known as the "Father of Computers." He developed the Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine. These two machines were powered by steam to move the punch cards and operate the gears. His ideas were later used to design calculators and computers.
He created the computer language known as "Windows." He also made the Personal Computer (PC) popular by bringing it over from Japan.
along with Stephen Wozniak and Ronald founded Apple. Although the company had early success with the Apple and in particular, the Apple II, it was the original Macintosh (1984) that changed things: it was the first computer to have a graphical user interface and mouse rather than a command line interface. He developed the very first Apple in his garage.
was principally a mathematician, most famous for helping break the German's Enigma code during World War II at Bletchley Park. He turned to computers to help break codes faster, saving millions of lives in the process and shortening the length of the war.
Another member of the Bletchley Park World War II team. He was instrumental in building the world's first electronic computer: Colossus. The principle purpose of the machine was to break the Lorenz Cipher, used by high-level Germans, including Adolf Hitler.
he created the mouse (then a wooden shell with two metal wheels in it), still the de facto way that we interact with computers today. He and his team also created bit-mapped screens, hypertext and some precursors to the graphical user interface (GUI).
Philip Don Estridge
led the development of the IBM Personal Computer (PC), arguably the most important computer in the history of computers. It's the creation of this computer that's led to the types of computer that we have today.
As the founder of Intel, He has helped shape the modern world and create the base technology platform that the majority of the world uses, whether its Linux, Windows or Mac OS X.
He designed and built the first web browser, created the first web server and, in short, changed the entire world as we know it. We're now so reliant on the internet that it's impossible to imagine life without the world wide web.
The Ladies of ENIAC
Comprised of Kay McNulty, Marlyn Wescoff, Fran Bilas, Ruth Lichterman, Adele Goldstine (and Betty Snyder), these ladies were the first "computors" working on ENIAC at the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Engineering.
Jean E. Sammet
She was responsible for developing the first computer language while working at IBM. Her program, FORMAC, was the first widely used computer language for the symbolic manipulation of mathematical formulas.
was credited with popularizing the term "bug" and "debugging" - reportedly when she had to remove a moth from the inside of a computer, was instrumental in the creation of FLOW-MATIC language for the UNIVAC I and UNIVAC II computers and was quoted as saying "It is easier to ask forgiveness than it is to get permission."
She is considered to be the first computer programmer. She wrote a computer language for the Analytical Engine.
Vacuum Tubes (1940's)
They were electronic devices that controlled the flow of electricity in and out of a computer. They looked like long light bulbs.
Transistors replaced the use of vacuum tubes. They controlled the flow of electricity in and out of the computer. They were much more reliable than the vacuum tubes.
Integrated Circuits (1960's)
is a tiny chip that contains thousands of tiny circuits. They are about the size of a fingernail and are made from silicone (hard plastic). They allow electricity to flow throughout the computer.
were developed by M.E. Hoff. It allowed scientists to put more complex circuits and large memory storage on a very small computer chip.
Mark I (1944)
This was the very first electronic computer. It was designed by Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper. It could automatically solve differential equations and prepare mathematical tables.
Electronical Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC)
This was the first all-electric computer. John Eckert and John Mauchly developed it in 1946. It was very large and consumed a large amount of electricity. It was not used after 1955.
Electronic Discrete Variable Computer (EDVAC)
John Von Neumann developed the EDVAC. It was one of the first computers to use memory to store programs and data.
1st Generation of Computers (Vacuum Tubes)
Mark I - ENIAC - EDVAC
2nd Generation of Computers (Transistors)
IBM - NCR - RCA - UNIVAC
3rd Generation of Computers (Integrated Circuits)
Mainframe and Minicomputer
4th Generation of Computers (Microprocessor (CPU)
5th Generation of Computers (Microprocessor and AI)
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History of Computers