63 terms

Florida Professional Education Test

Albert Bandura
Social learning theory/ self-efficacy.
Bobo doll- observational learning, imitation & modeling. Attention, retention, reciprocation & motivation
Bobo doll
observational learning, imitation & modeling. Attention, retention, reciprocation & motivation
People with a strong sense of self-efficacy (Albert Bandura)
1. Mastery experiences
2. Social modeling
3. Social persuasion
4. Psychological responses (lower the anxiety)
People with a weak sense of self-efficacy (Albert Bandura)
1. Avoid challenging tasks
2. Believe that difficult tasks and situations are beyond their capability
3. Focus on personal failings and negative outcomes
4. Quickly lose confidence in personal abilities
Albert Bandura Big Summary
- use peer modeling
-Teach specific learning strategies
- capitalize on students' interests
-encourage accurate attributions
-encourage students to try
-allow students to make their own choices
-give feedback
Jerome Bruner
Goal: autonomous learners (i.e. Learning to learn)
Kids can learn complex subject matters through spiraling curriculum & readiness to learn
Spiral curriculum
(Jerome Bruner)
Come back to a topic- scope sequence
Jean Piaget
Cognitive Development
The Sensorimotor Stage (Jean Piaget)
Feeling their way through the world- touch- sense
The Pre-operational Stage (Jean Piaget)
At this stage, kids learn through pretend play but still struggle with logic and taking the point of view of other people
The Concrete Operational stage (Jean Piaget)
Kids at this point of development begin to think more logically, but their thinking can also be very rigid. They tend to struggle with abstract and hypothetical concepts.
The Formal Operational Stage (Jean Piaget)
The final stage of Piaget's theory involves an increase in logic, the ability to use deductive reasoning, and an understanding of abstract ideas,
Schemata (Jean Piaget)
How we learn things - what is a balloon?
Assimilation (Jean Piaget)
Adding info to schema
Equilibrium (Jean Piaget)
When schema is changed
Accommodation (Jean Piaget)
Rocks your world
Disequilibrium ( Jean Piaget)
Is uncomfortable
Lev Vggotsky
Zone of proximal development & more capable other idea/ we don't learn in isolation
Zone of Proximal Development ( Lev Vggotsky)
"The sweet spot"
Thing that a child can do with a bit of help (scaffolding), such as prompted questions & watching an example setter
We don't learn from isolation (Lev Vggotsky)
-Peer tutoring
-Provide practice with ZPD
-cooperative learning activities
Howard Gardner
Multiple Intelligences
Visual intelligence (Howard Gardner)
Art and design
Linguistic intelligence (Howard Gardner)
Logical intelligence (Howard Gardner)
Numbers and math
Bodily intelligence (Howard Gardner)
Movement and sports
Musical intelligence (Howard Gardner)
Music, tone, and rhythm
Interpersonal intelligence (Howard Gardner)
Communicating with others
Intrapersonal intelligence (Howard Gardner)
Naturalistic intelligence (Howard Gardner)
World and nature
BF Skinner
-Intrinsic & extrinsic motivation
-operant conditioning
-positive/ negative reinforcement
-natural reinforcement
John Dewey
Constructivism: participation in a classroom democracy aka learning by doing
Constructivism (John Dewey)
-cooperative learning
-problem based instruction
-project based
Constructivism (John Dewey)
The purpose in education is to become creative and innovative through analysis
Gender Differences
- readiness issues (starting school early not better for boys)
-atmosphere: loud for boys
-language: more stuttering in boys
Emotional stress: boys-flight or fight. Girls- tend or befriend
-ADHD: boys
Student exceptionalities
Wait time
Areas of exceptionality in student learning
- visual
-special physical or sensory challenges
-learning disabilities
-behavior disorders
-developmental delays
ADA Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
- IEP Individualized Education Plan
- LRE Least Restrictive Environment
-Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Differentiated Instruction
Teachers DO
Provide several learning options, take information & make sense of concepts/ skills. Select appropriate levels of challenges for all student levels.
Differentiated Instruction Teachers DON'T
Develop separate lesson plan for each student in a classroom... "Water down" the curriculum for some students
Differentiated Instruction Based on Content
-Utilize pre-tests to assess where individual students are at
- use various delivery methods to address different learning styles
- choose broad instructional concepts and skills
-break assignments into smaller more manageable parts
Differentiated Instruction Based on Product
-Variety of assessment strategies
-make assessment an ongoing, interactive process
Blooms Taxonomy
How to classify educational objectives
Goldilocks Remember (Blooms Taxonomy)
Describe where Goldilocks lived
Understand Goldilocks (Blooms Taxonomy)
Summarize what the Goldilocks story was about
Goldilocks Apply (Blooms Taxonomy)
Construct a theory as to why Goldilocks reacted and how you would react in each story event
Goldilocks Analyze (Blooms Taxonomy)
Differentiate between how Goldilocks reacted and how you would react in each story event
Goldilocks Evaluate (Blooms Taxonomy)
Assess whether or not you think this really happened to Goldilocks
Goldilocks Create (Blooms Taxonomy)
Compose a song, skit, poem, or rap to convey the Goldilocks story in a new form
Teacher Communication
-Probing the learner for understanding
-help students articulate ideas and thinking process
-facilitate factual recall
-stimulate curiosity
-promote caring Environment
-help students to question
Professional Learning Communities (PLC)
-professional literature
-professional associations
-PD activities
-shared decision making
Variety of sources of instruction
-computers-instructional technology
-local experts
-primary documents/ artifacts
-field trips
-service learning
Student centered instructional approaches:
1. Cooperative learning
2. Collaborative learning
3. Concept Models
4. Discussion Models
5. Laboratories
6. Project-based Learning
7. Simulations
Discovery Learning
An inquiry-based learning method. Is mostly while students problem solve. Students learn from firsthand experiences.
Inquiry Model
Students developing questions & investigating to find solutions. This involves active problem solving and communication of new understandings.
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach multicultural backgrounds
1. Age-appropriate knowledge & behavior
3. The student culture at the schoo
4. Family backgrounds
5. Linguistic patterns and differences
6. Cognitive patterns and differences
7. Social and emotional issues
Assessment in ongoing and tightly linked to instruction
Teachers ensure "respectful activities" for all students aka valuable and worthwhile
Time is flexible in accordance to student needs
Students help other students and teacher solve problem
Students work with teacher the teacher to establish both whole group and individual goals
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other languages
ESL Standards K-12 1997
Educate America Act 19 9
Encouraged a widespread movement to develop standards for specific content areas.