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AP Computer Science Principles - Semester I
Terms in this set (62)
Removing unnecessary details to focus on the essential characteristics. To break problems up into separate parts which can then be solved separately and recombined to form a complete solution. To focus on and use something based only on what it does and without concern for how that functionality is accomplished.
Pulling out specific differences to make one solution work for multiple problems
A computation in which rows from a data set are grouped together and used to compute a single value of more significant meaning or measurement. Common aggregations include: Average, Count, Sum, Max, Median, etc.
For example, if some dataset contained information about how many hours of television people watched and included their age, you could "aggregate the data by age" and compute the average hours watched for each age group. You could also "aggregate by hours of TV watched" and compute the average age for each number of hours
A precise sequence of instructions for processes that can be executed by a computer and are implemented using programming languages. (NOTE: this is the definition from the AP CS Principles framework)
a collection of commands made available to a programmer
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASCII is the universally recognized raw text format that any computer can understand
a type of cryptographic based on algorithms that require two keys -- one of which is secret (or private) and one of which is public (freely known to others)
Bandwidth is normally expressed in bits per second. It's the amount of data that can be transferred during a second.
Solving bandwidth is easier than solving latency. To solve bandwidth, more pipes are added. For example, in early analog modems it was possible to increase bandwidth by bonding two or more modems. In fact, ISDN achieves 128K of bandwidth by bonding two 64K channels using a datalink protocol called multilink-ppp.
Bandwidth and latency are connected. If the bandwidth is saturated then congestion occurs and latency is increased. However, if the bandwidth of a circuit is not at peak, the latency will not decrease. Bandwidth can always be increased but latency cannot be decreased. Latency is the function of the electrical characteristics of the circuit
a broad term for datasets so large or complex that traditional data processing applications are inadequate
A contraction of "Binary Digit". A bit is the single unit of information in a computer, typically represented as a 0 or 1
the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time. e.g. 8 bits/sec
a technique for encryption that shifts the alphabet by some number of characters
the generic term for a technique (or algorithm) that performs encryption
A computer that requests data stored on a server
to write code, or to write instructions for a computer
a "hard' problem for a computer is one in which it cannot arrive at a solution in a reasonable amount of time
When you attempt to decode a secret message <em>without</em> knowing all the specifics of the cipher, you are trying to crack the encryption
Abbreviation of "comma-separated values," this is a widely-used format for storing data
a process that reverses encryption, taking a secret message and reproducing the original plain text
an abbreviation for Domain Name System, the Internet's system for converting alphabetic names into numeric IP addresses
a description of the behavior of a command, function, library, API, etc
a process of encoding messages to keep them secret, so only "authorized" parties can read it
A particular kind of looping construct provided in many languages. Typically, a for loop defines a counting variable that is checked and incremented on each iteration in order to loop a specific number of times
A piece of code that you can easily call over and over again
a problem solving approach (algorithm) to find a satisfactory solution where finding an optimal or exact solution is impractical or impossible
A number system consisting of 16 distinct symbols — 0-9 and A-F — which can occur in each place value
High level programming language
A programming language with many commands and features designed to make common tasks easier to program. Any high level functionality is encapsulated as combinations of low level commands
HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
is the protocol used by the World Wide Web. It describes how messages are formatted and interchanged, and how web servers respond to commands
A proposed explanation for some phenomenon used as the basis for further investigation
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is a large open international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet. It is open to any interested individual. The IETF Mission Statement is documented in RFC 3935
A type of data used for graphics or pictures
A number assigned to any item that is connected to the internet
is the repetition of part of an algorithm until a condition is met or for a specified number of times
Latency is delay
For our purposes, it is the amount of time it takes a packet to travel from source to destination. Together, latency and bandwidth define the speed and capacity of a network.
Latency is normally expressed in milliseconds. One of the most common methods to measure latency is the utility ping. A small packet of data, typically 32 bytes, is sent to a host and the RTT (round-trip time, time it takes for the packet to leave the source host, travel to the destination host and return back to the source host) is measured.
a collection of commands / functions, typically with a shared purpose
a programming construct that repeats a group of commands
A compression scheme in which every bit of the original data can be recovered from the compressed file
a data compression algorithm that allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data
A compression scheme in which "useless" or less-than-totally-necessary information is thrown out in order to reduce the size of the data. The eliminated data is unrecoverable
Low level programming language
A programming language that captures only the most primitive operations available to a machine. Anything that a computer can do can be represented with combinations of low level commands
Data that describes other data. For example, a digital image my include metadata that describe the size of the image, number of colors, or resolution
Modulo (or "mod")
the name of the mathematical operation. Modulo gives the remainder from dividing two numbers. For example: 17 MOD 13 is 4.
the "clock size"
the observation that computing power roughly doubles every two years.
Small chunks of information that have been carefully formed from larger chunks of information
An extra piece of information that you pass to the function to customize it for a specific need
The tool used by most spreadsheet programs to create a summary table
Short for "picture element" it is the fundamental unit of a digital image, typically a tiny square or dot which contains a single point of color of a larger image
the complementary key to a public key that is used to decrypt a message
A set of rules governing the exchange or transmission of data between devices
A preliminary sketch of an idea or model for something new. It's the original drawing from which something real might be built or created
a value that can be used to encrypt a message. However, only when combined with a mathematically-related private key, can the message be decrypted
Random Substitution Cipher
an encoding technique that maps each letter of the alphabet randomly to different letters or characters
The original data as it was collected
A document providing background information about a dataset
Request for Comments (RFC)
Documents how standards and protocols are defined and published for all to see on the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) website
a computer which receives messages travelling across a network and redirects them towards their intended destinations based on the addressing information included with the message
uses a Boolean condition (a TRUE/FALSE condition) to determine which of two parts of an algorithm is used
is the application of each step of an algorithm in the order in which the statements are given
A computer that awaits and responds to requests for data
A table that summarizes information about some larger dataset. It typically consists of performing computations like sums, averages, and counts on higher level groupings of information. The intent is to summarize lots of data into a form that is more useful, and easier to "see".
Transmission Control Protocol - provides reliable, ordered, and error-checked delivery of a stream of packets on the internet. TCP is tightly linked with IP and usually seen as TCP/IP in writing.
a method of encrypting text by applying a series of Caesar ciphers based on the letters of a keyword.
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